The findings of a recent study suggest that people previously infected with Covid and those vaccinated will have some ‘stronger than basic’ defence against the Omicron strain of coronavirus.
However, the test tube (or ‘in-vitro’, scientifically) samples of Omicron examined in this new research did not show that it “exceeds” all other variants in its potential capability to evade the protection gained from previous infection or vaccination.
The findings also suggested that although a third-dose enhancement strategy can “significantly boost immunity,” the protection from Omicron “may be compromised, more research is needed to better understand this.
Lead author Youchun Wang, Senior Research Fellow from the National Institutes for Food and Drug Control in China, said that their results supported recent findings in South Africa which highlighted Omicron was “easy to evade immunity.”
“We found a large number of mutations of the Omicron variant did cause significant changes of neutralization sensitivity against people who had already had Covid,” Wang said. “However, the average ED50 (protection level) against Omicron is still higher than the baseline, which indicated there is still some protection effect can be observed,” Wang added.Wang, who is Former Chairman of the Medical Virology and Vice Chairman of the Medical Microbiology and Immunology of the Chinese Medical Association, did add caution though.
He said that because the antibody protection—in the form of previous infection or vaccination—decreased gradually over a period of six months, Omicron “may be able to escape immunity even better.” Plus, his team’s paper predicted that whilst “a third-dose enhancement strategy can significantly boost immunity,” the “protection from Omicron may be compromised.”
The expert team of 11 scientists looked at 28 serum samples from patients recovering from the original strain of SARS-CoV-2. They tested these against in-vitro Omicron samples, as well as four other strains marked ‘of concern’ by the World Health Organization (such as Delta), and two variants marked as ‘of interest’.
“This study verifies the enhanced immune escape of Omicron variant, which sounds the alarm to the world and has important implications for the public health planning and the development of matching strategies,” Wang summarised.
Now, the team stated that more research, carried out not just in-vitro but in real-world studies is urgently needed to better understand Omicron. And, specifically, whether it escaped from the vaccine-elicited immunity to cause more severe disease and death. “It needs to be re-evaluated whether the antibodies can still be effective against the Omicron variant,” the authors stated.
“The exact impact to human protection may be influenced by more factors such as the infectivity of Omicron variant relative to other variants to human populations and the viral fitness of Omicron once the humans are infected,” they said.
“More population studies including the level of immune protection and symptoms among people infected with Omicron are needed to fully establish the global impact of Omicron to the control of Covid-19 pandemic,” they added The major caveat of this study is that it is in-vitro in nature and that it used pseudotyped (manufactured) viruses.