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People with serious mental illness may have higher risk of heart disease: Study

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A new analysis of nearly 600,000 adults in the US revealed that those diagnosed with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder might have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease at younger ages compared to adults not diagnosed with one of those serious mental illnesses.

“Previous research has indicated that people diagnosed with a serious mental illness die 10-20 years earlier than the general population, and their leading cause of death is heart disease,” said study lead author Rebecca C. Rossom, M.D., M.S., a senior research investigator in behavioural health at the Center for Chronic Care Innovation at HealthPartners Institute in Minneapolis, Minnesota. “Our study focused on the contribution of cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar, body mass index and smoking status, to compare overall heart disease risk for people with and without serious mental illness,” he added.

The researchers believed this is the first study to examine estimated 30-year (lifetime) cardiovascular risk in a large sample of adult outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Many previous studies of cardiovascular risk for people with serious mental illness have included only people who were hospitalized, and they tend to have more severe mental illness and frailer health than outpatients, as per Rossom. In contrast, this study included a large sample of non-hospitalized US adults.

As per the National Institute of Mental Health, bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, concentration and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Schizophrenia can cause hallucinations, delusions or disorganized speech.

People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality, which can cause significant distress for the individual, their family and friends. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be persistent and disabling. Schizoaffective disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as an uninterrupted duration of illness during which there is a major mood episode (manic or depressive) in addition to meeting the criteria for schizophrenia.

This analysis evaluated health data for nearly 600,000 people, ages 18-75 years, who visited a primary care clinic in Minnesota and Wisconsin between January 2016 and September 2018. Nearly 2 per cent, or approximately 11,000 adults, had a diagnosis of serious mental illness. Of these, 70 per cent were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, 18 per cent with schizoaffective disorder and 12 per cent with schizophrenia. On average, people with serious mental illness were more likely to be younger; female; self-identify as Black race, Native American, Alaskan race or of multiple races; and be insured by Medicaid or Medicare, compared to their counterparts not diagnosed with one of those three serious mental illnesses.

Prediction models providing a standardized metric were used to assess cardiovascular risk factors and predict the likelihood of a heart attack, stroke or cardiovascular death. To assess 10-year risk, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association’s atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk scoring tool was used for adults ages 40-75 years old. The Framingham Risk Score was used to estimate 30-year cardiovascular risk among adults ages 18-59 years old.

Researchers found:

1. Adults in the study with one of the serious mental illnesses reviewed had an estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk level of 9.5 per cent, compared to 8 per cent for adults without a mental condition.

2. The estimated 30-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly higher among those individuals with one of the three serious mental illnesses – 25 per cent compared to 11 per cent of people without a serious mental illness.

3. The increased risk of heart disease was evident even in young adults (ages 18-34) with a serious mental illness.

4. Within the subtypes of each of the three serious mental illnesses in this study, in analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity and insurance coverage, people with bipolar disorder had the highest 10-year cardiovascular risk compared to those with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, while people with the schizoaffective disorder had the highest 30-year cardiovascular risk when compared to the other two groups.

5. Smoking and BMI accounted for much of the risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disease in those with a serious mental illness: those with a serious mental illness were three times more likely to be current smokers (36 per cent) compared to peers without serious mental illness (12 per cent), and 50 per cent of those with a serious mental illness met the criteria for obesity compared to 36 per cent of people without a serious mental illness.

6. People with a serious mental illness had doubled the rate of diagnosed diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) than people without serious mental illness (14 per cent vs. 7 per cent, respectively).

7. 15 per cent of adults with a serious mental illness had high blood pressure vs. 13 per cent of those without a serious mental illness.

Rossom said, “Even at younger ages, people with serious mental illness had a higher risk of heart disease than their peers, which highlights the importance of addressing cardiovascular risk factors for these individuals as early as possible. Interventions to address heart disease risk for these individuals are maximally beneficial when initiated at younger ages. “We encourage health care systems and clinicians to use the 30-year cardiovascular risk estimates for young adults with serious mental illness, as these may be used starting at age 18,” he said.

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Study details benefits of turmeric compound

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According to a new study by the University of California, a compound found in turmeric called Curcumin helps grow engineered blood vessels and tissues.

The findings of the study were published in the journal, ‘ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. The study indicated that a finding by UC Riverside bioengineers could hasten the development of lab-grown blood vessels and other tissues to replace and regenerate damaged tissues in human patients.

Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and is known to suppress angiogenesis in malignant tumors.

The magnetic hydrogels embedded with curcumin-coated nanoparticles promote the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factors.

Curcumin’s possible use for vascular regeneration has been suspected for some time but has not been well studied. Huinan Liu, a bioengineering professor in UCR’s Marlan and Rosemary Bourns College of Engineering, led a project to investigate curcumin’s regenerative properties by coating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the compound and mixing them into a biocompatible hydrogel.

Bioengineers at UC Riverside have now discovered that when delivered through magnetic hydrogels into stem cell cultures this versatile compound paradoxically also promotes the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, or VEGF, that helps vascular tissues grow.

When cultured with stem cells derived from bone marrow, the magnetic hydrogel gradually released the curcumin without injuring the cells.

Compared to hydrogels embedded with bare nanoparticles, the group of hydrogels loaded with curcumin-coated nanoparticles showed a higher amount of VEGF secretion.

“Our study shows that curcumin released from magnetic hydrogels promotes the cells to secrete VEGF, which is one of the most critical growth factors to enhance the formation of new blood vessels,” said co-author Changlu Xu, a doctoral candidate in Liu’s group who focused on hydrogel research.

The researchers also took advantage of the nanoparticles’ magnetism to see if they could direct the nanoparticles to desired locations in the body.

They placed some of the curcumin-coated nanoparticles in a tube behind pieces of fresh pig tissue and used a magnet to successfully direct the movement of the nanoparticles.

The achievement suggested the method could eventually be used to deliver curcumin to help heal or regenerate injured tissue.

In fact, the best curcumin supplements contain piperine, and this makes them substantially more effective.

In addition, animal and cellular studies suggest that curcumin may block the action of free radicals and may stimulate the action of other antioxidants. Further clinical studies are needed in humans to confirm these benefits

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LONG-TERM FOLLOW UP REDUCES TYPE 2 DIABETES RISK

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Though type 2 diabetes is an inherited disease, habits can affect the risk of getting it. Obesity due to fatty and high-calorie foods, often in combination with limited activity, increases the risk considerably.

A new study at NTNU (The Norwegian University of Science and Technology) and St. Olav’s Hospital Centre of Obesity has followed people in the risk group for five years. Participants were offered organized physical activity and courses on the diet. “We’re seeing that follow-up from the health services in Norwegian municipalities over a long period can help reduce the risk of developing diabetes 2 and improve people’s health,” says researcher Ingrid Sordal Folling at NTNU’s Department of Health and Nursing.

Folling works in the Centre for Obesity Research, Surgical Clinic at St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim. The study results have been published in the British Medical Journal.Taking action helpWorldwide, 350 million people have type 2 diabetes.

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HEART FAILURE AWARENESS MONTH 2022: CONTROL HEART FAILURE WITH HELPFUL TIPS

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Taking care of one’s heart is crucial, especially if one is suffering from heart failure. Heart failure is the inability of the heart to pump blood efficiently, as seen by shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, and exhaustion. Heart Failure Awareness Month in 2022 is a fantastic time to promote awareness about the issue while also providing simple advice to help heart failure patients live better and happier lives.

Heart failure is a chronic illness that can be adequately controlled with the right treatment and care. Heart failure patients can greatly benefit from regular interactions with their cardiologists, adherence to prescribed treatment plans, and adopting a healthy lifestyle. Dr. K Sarat Chandra, Senior Cardiologist at Apollo Spectra Hospital, Hyderabad, former Editor, Indian Heart Journal, and former President, Cardiological Society of India said, “In India, heart failure is an increasing problem and the reasons for this are the high prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and heart attack. Very often we see younger people coming with these conditions. To prevent these problems, we need to improve our lifestyle, do regular exercise, stop smoking and limit alcohol intake. Also control blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol. Regarding heart failure, several new treatments have come into practice and early treatment will benefit our patients.”

Here are a few tips for all heart failure patients:

Talk to your cardiologist

It is good to have regular conversations with your cardiologist. Report new or worsening symptoms you observe immediately. These timely check-ups will help you keep track of your progress and get the right advice at the right time.

Check your salt consumption

Inadequate blood flow to the kidneys causes the body to retain water and fluids which leads to swollen legs, abdomen, and ankles, increased urination, and weight gain. High salt consumption is known to cause extra fluid build-up in your body and worsens heart failure. Therefore, keep your salt intake in check by lowering salt levels in your meals, replacing salt with herbs and spices, or choosing ‘low-salt’ or preferably ‘no salt added’ when buying canned or frozen foods.

Track your fluid intake

Drinking a lot of fluids can worsen your heart failure. It is advisable to limit beverages like tea, juice, and soft drinks, as well as foods with high water content like soups, watermelon, or even ice cream! Quick weight gain can be a sign of fluid build-up in your body.

Stick to the prescribed treatment

Staying on top of taking your medications as prescribed is crucial for effective heart failure management. Use reminders or alarms to never miss a dose or an appointment! If you live alone, paste sticky notes on your cabinets or refrigerator as an easy reminder.

According to Prof. (Dr.) Sundeep Mishra, former Professor of Cardiology Department of AIIMS and presently Vice-Chancellor (President) of NIMS University, “With the increasing burden of Heart Failure in India, especially in the younger population, it is necessary to recognize it – as a public health priority. The key reason for the rise in heart failure cases is the growing dependency on a sedentary lifestyle, higher consumption of salt, sugar, and fat in the diet, and rising stress levels. Although, heart failure can be still managed better by regular treatment and regular conversations with a cardiologist and a holistic treatment plan can help one manage the condition better.”

Heart failure is a serious chronic condition where the heart cannot pump enough blood to support the needs of other organs in the body. The most common causes of heart failure include coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), congenital heart defects, or damaged heart valves. Symptoms include breathlessness, fatigue and swollen limbs. it is the most frequent cause the age of 65.

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How brain changes during treatment of depression

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Researchers have shown what happens to the brain when treated for depression known as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

The findings of the research were published in the ‘American Journal of Psychiatry’ by a collaborative effort across the Centre for Brain Health, including DMCBH researchers Dr Sophia Frangou, Dr Rebecca Todd, and Dr Erin MacMillan, as well as members of the UBC MRI Research Centre including Laura Barlow at the University of British Columbia. rTMS is a depression treatment typically used when other approaches — such as medications — haven’t been effective for a patient. It is estimated that approximately 40 per cent of people with major depression do not respond to antidepressants.

During an rTMS session, a device containing an electromagnetic coil is placed against a patient’s scalp. The device then painlessly delivers a magnetic pulse that stimulates nerve cells in a region of the brain involved in mood control — called the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Although proven to be effective, the mechanisms behind how rTMS affects the brain have not been well understood.

“When we first started this research, the question we were asking was very simple: we wanted to know what happens to the brain when rTMS treatment is being delivered,” said Dr Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, an assistant professor in UBC’s department of psychiatry and researcher at the Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health (DMCBH).

To answer this question, Dr Vila-Rodriguez and his team delivered one round of rTMS to patients while they were inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Since the MRI can measure brain activity, the researchers were able to see in real-time what changes were happening in the brain.

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Amit Trivedi lends voice to inhaler campaign by Cipla

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Asthma ke liye Inhalers Hain Sahi’ (inhalers are right for asthma) has been sung by Amit Trivedi and Nikita Gandhi for Cipla Limited. The song is penned by lyricist Amitabh Bhattacharya and composed by Amit Trivedi. Cipla Limited has launched the #InhalersHainSahi song under its campaign #BerokZindagi. Amit Trivedi spoke to The Daily Guardian about the song and more.

Q: Share your association with Cipla’s Berok Zindagi Campaign? What does the campaign strive to achieve and how does it aim to create an impact?

I am glad to collaborate with Cipla and contribute to their ongoing efforts toward creating awareness around asthma and inhalers. I hope this jingle will strike a chord with people and help create the right amount of awareness and help-built confidence amongst asthmatics. I feel humbled to be associated with the campaign because I know how important this issue is and I’ve got this opportunity to bring awareness about using inhalers.

Q: What drove you to be a part of this campaign? Is there any personal reason associated with the same?

I believe that awareness can liberate and help break stereotypes. And, this campaign is doing the same. #InhalersHainSahi song is another step towards starting a conversation on asthma and inhalers. The campaign gave me a reason to be part of this cause and to team up with Cipla in their effort to help & support people with asthma to live a better life.

Q: How do you think music plays an important role in driving conversations around less debated topics like asthma?

Music is a powerful medium to convey the message with a great impact and can build a strong emotional connection with the audience. It can lighten up a serious situation while still keeping the essence of the message intact.

Q: How will this jingle create an emotional touch among the audience? How do you think the jingle will help in driving awareness?

As mentioned earlier, I am certain that the music has the power to evoke an emotional chord with the audience. The #InhalersHainSahi song will help create the right amount of awareness and help-built confidence amongst asthmatics.

Q: What do you think is the most unique about this jingle?

The music is hummable and retains the message of the campaign that we want to convey through the song.

Q: What are your future projects?

 Recently I did my first Gujarati film Prem Prakaran and the rest you will know very soon.

Q: You have introduced several new singers, how do you cast the voices for your songs?

I like to bring in new voices and new musicians because talent can be found anywhere. I’m always open to giving opportunities and trying out new people for my projects.

Q: How do you keep innovating with every new film?

It’s a creative process continuously between the entire team, there is briefing discussion, jamming, the vision of the director, which ultimately leads to newer ideas.

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Punjab populace more hypertensive than the nation: NFHS Survey

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When the national average is 25.3% in terms of hypertension prevalence, Punjab is shooting up at 35.7%. As per National Family Health Survey that was conducted in 2020-2021, it is clear that Punjab is the only state where the populace is more prone to hypertension than any other state in India. All thanks to trans fat and the lifestyle of Punjabis makes them easy victims of cardiovascular diseases.

The Daily Guardian spoke to the Community Medicine Professor Dr Sonu Goel on this. Dr Goel exhorted that it has been concluded in many surveys including the NFHS survey that trans fat is an invariable component of industrial fat and one of the major dietary factors associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, increasing the risk of heart disease by 21% and deaths by 28%. Many in the early age group of 35 to 50 years in Punjab have become victims of uncontrolled high blood pressure, says Dr Goel.

“It’s being seen in people with a family history of premature chronic heart disease or stroke and a raised triglyceride level. Besides this, modifiable risk factors include unhealthy diets, excessive salt consumption, a diet high in saturated fats and trans fats, and low intake of fruits and vegetables,” says Dr Goel.

“Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the most found cause of disease burden. In recent years, the rising burden of cardiovascular diseases and high disease severity has been one of the significant threats in low-income and middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. People who are young believe in the myth that heart attacks can occur only in old age. They should wake up and adopt a healthy lifestyle at the earliest. One should give at least one hour to physical activity and make sure not to ignore the body’s signals,” he adds.

There has been an increase in the rate of coronary artery disease (CAD) in India in the last three decades.

A study published by the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research in 2016 states that Indians have three, six, and twenty times greater risk of hypertension than Americans, Chinese, and Japanese populations respectively. “It is a matter of concern and there is a requirement to identify the factors responsible for its increasing prevalence, concludes Dr Goel.

Punjab is the only state where the populace is more prone to hypertension than any other state in India.

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