M Factors of Lok Sabha election

Now only a few phases of voting are left in the Lok Sabha elections 2024. There are different electoral equations for each phase and all the parties are busy in adjusting these equations. The eqation of one phase is completely different from the eqation of another phase. There are some factors which are very important […]

Now only a few phases of voting are left in the Lok Sabha elections 2024. There are different electoral equations for each phase and all the parties are busy in adjusting these equations. The eqation of one phase is completely different from the eqation of another phase. There are some factors which are very important for this election. Keeping in view the current Lok Sabha elections, there are many important factors which have a wide impact on the voters, among them M factors are very important whose total number is 11.

Since these factors start with M, they have been called ‘M factors’ of Lok Sabha elections 2024.


Media plays very important role in creating awareness amongst voters. Media gives direction to the society. Media is the mirror of the society. With the change in times, there have been major changes in the media also. Today, along with electronic and print media, social media is also being used by all political parties as well as voters. All political parties are making full use of the media. With the availability of mobile handsets and internet, media is today able to reach every home. Any news or event is reaching crores of people in a moment. On one hand, the government tries to convey its achievements to the public using the media, while on the other hand, the opposition takes the failures of the government to the public. Media is the best means of promotion for political parties. With the use of media the image of a party or leader can be improved.

Mahila (Women)

Women are one of the most important factors influencing the outcome of the current Lok Sabha elections. All parties understand this very well. There are a total of 97.6 crore voters in the country, of which the number of women is 47.1 crore. Woman is the most powerful link of the family. If a woman has positive inclination towards a party or alliance as a voter, it is quite possible that it will have an impact on other members of the family as well. Issues like women’s safety, inflation, employment opportunities, social equality, economic development are very important for women. In multiple elections, women’s vote has played a decisive role in forming the government.


Muslim factor is very important in elections. Muslims have been with Congress since the beginning but due to the increasing strength of regional political partie the situation is now different. Muslim voters are fragmented. The community is not voting in unified way. Along with Congress, Muslim voters are associated in large numbers with parties like Trinamool Congress, NCP, Samajwadi Party, AIMIM. The fragmentation of Muslim voters has proved to be a boon for some parties and a curse for others. Due to AIMIM contesting in the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections in the year 2022, there was fragmentation among Muslim voters, which resulted in loss for Samajwadi Party and Congress, while it benefited BJP. It has also been seen in the previous Lok Sabha and state assembly elections that the mobilization of the Muslim community led to the mobilization of the Hindu community, which led to major upsets in the elections. The inclination of Muslim women voters has changed positively towards BJP in recent years regarding the ban on triple talaq and women’s safety, the effect of which is visible in the election results. There is no doubt that the Muslim population, the second largest community in the country from the religious point of view, will play a very important role in this election.


The growing role of marketing in the context of elections can be said to be “Without marketing, nothing is possible”. By using marketing tactics, the voters can be easily attracted towards the party. Without good marketing, it is almost impossible to create a valuable brand image of the party in the mind of voters. To convey the election manifesto, policies, leadership, governance and achievements to 140 crore people of country, it is necessary to take the help of marketing. The main function of marketing is to convey positive policy, intentions and leadership to the public. Print and electronic media as well as social media can be used for marketing. Marketing can be both positive and negative. Parties use positive marketing for themselves while negative marketing for opposing parties.


During this election, another M factor has emerged which will have an impact on the election and that is Mangalsutra. In rural India, Mangalsutra reflects marital status. We should remember that 70% of the country’s population lives in villages. Where did the issue of Mangalsutra arise, why did it arise, how much truth is there in it is a different topic but its wider impact can be seen in this election because it is emotionally connected to women.


From the election point of view, Modi factor has emerged as the biggest factor in the country in the last 10 years. Modi factor is the biggest and strongest factor for Bharatiya Janata Party. This is such an electoral factor which outweighs other major factors of elections, ignoring it would be like hitting one’s own foot. Such a situation has arisen in many places in the country where the voters do not care about the local candidate and will vote for the candidate only because of the Modi factor. There is also Yogi factor, Hindutva factor and development factor to support the Modi factor. Modi factor has its own craze among the young voters.


It is almost impossible to contest and win elections without money power. All parties have been using money extensively in elections and there is nothing wrong in it. Billions of rupees are required for publicity. Every party accepts donations legally and uses the money received to contest elections. The problem arises when black money is used in elections or an attempt is made to buy votes. Due to the strictness and activeness of the Election Commission of India, such activities have reduced significantly. No candidate can use more money than a limit to contest elections. The Election Commission of India has tightened its grip on money power and muscle power.

Macroeconomic indicators

Macroeconomic indicators also influence elections to a great extent. Microeconomic indicators tell how the economic growth of a country is witnessing. It includes GDP growth rate, per capita income, forex reserves, tax receipt, balance of payment, share market index, national income, monthly GST collection, rate of unemployment, rate of inflation etc. Macroeconomic indicators matter more to urban and highly educated voters. If macroeconomic indicators are positive, the ruling party benefits, otherwise it suffers loss.

Mandir (Temple)

The symbols associated with religious places have had special importance in every culture and civilization. Indian culture is also one of them. Ram temple is associated with the faith, self-respect and respect of the Hindus with a population of more than 110 crores. After more than 500 years of ideological, religious, political and cultural struggle, the path to Ram temple in Ayodhya was paved. The relevance of the temple remains the same. Even when the path to construct Ram temple was not paved, Ram temple was at the center of politics and today even after the construction of the temple, it is at the center of politics. The construction of Ram Temple has given a new dimension to the “Temple Economy Model”. The temple will play an important role in this election too.

Mehangai (Inflation)

Inflation is a topic which has been indirectly influencing every election. Inflation is a continuous process. Balanced inflation has its own importance in the economy. Inflation cannot be eliminated or stopped, but inflation can be controlled through monetary policies. If the inflation rate is 2-4% it is considered good for economic growth, savings and investment. Whatever the inflation rate may have been, unfortunately inflation has never been the main election issue because of caste and religion based politics. Inflation will definitely have an impact on this election, but how much will be the impact will be known only after the election results.


All political parties release their election manifesto before the elections so that the public can be told why the voters should choose them and what will be their priorities if they come to power. Election manifesto is made with the aim of attracting voters towards the party. Only after understanding the election manifesto, the voter decides as to which party he should vote for.

M factors play a special role in elections. It is difficult to overcome the electoral dilemma successfully without simplifying the M factors. All the parties understand importance of the M factors and are trying to harness them in their favor. Election results will be out on June 4, the victory will be more likely to be of the party and alliance which will be successful in managing these M factors.


lok sabha elections 2024OpinionTDGThe Daily Guardian