Artificial Intelligence can be a very powerful tool in regard to monitoring and controlling Covid-19 situation across the country. Man-made brainpower (artificial intelligence) is an inventive innovation which is useful to battle the Coronavirus pandemic. This innovation is useful for appropriate screening, following, and foreseeing the current and future patients. The significant uses of this man-made intelligence are intended for early identification and conclusion of the infection.AI is utilized for the advancement of medications and antibodies, and the decrease of the responsibility of medical services laborers. Today, man-made intelligence advancements and devices assume a vital part in each part of the Coronavirus emergency response:understanding the infection and speeding up clinical examination on medications and medicines identifying and diagnosing the infection, and foreseeing its evolution,assisting in forestalling or easing back the virus\’ spread through reconnaissance and contact tracing,responding to the wellbeing emergency through customized data and learning,monitoring the recuperation and working on early notice apparatuses.
To assist with working with the utilization of artificial intelligence all through the emergency, strategy producers ought to energize the sharing of clinical, atomic, and logical datasets and models on collective stages to help artificial intelligence specialists construct viable instruments for the clinical local area and ought to guarantee that scientists approach the fundamental processing limit. The initial not many long stretches of 2020 have significantly changed the way we carry on with our lives and do our day by day exercises. Albeit the far reaching utilization of modern robot pivot and self-driving business vehicles has not yet turned into a reality, the Coronavirus pandemic has drastically sped up the reception of Man-made brainpower (artificial intelligence) in various fields. We have seen what could be compared to two years of advanced change compacted into only a couple of months. Regardless of whether it is in following epidemiological pinnacles or in executing contactless installments, the effect of these improvements has been practically prompt, and a window has opened up on what is to come. Here we examine and talk about how man-made intelligence can uphold us in confronting the continuous pandemic. In spite of the various and evident commitments of man-made intelligence, clinical preliminaries and human abilities are as yet required. Regardless of whether various procedures have been created in various states around the world, the battle against the pandemic appears to have discovered wherever a significant partner in artificial intelligence, a worldwide and open-source instrument equipped for giving help with this wellbeing crisis.
Coronavirus might be viewed as the primary flu pandemic to be spread in our hyper-associated world. It has demonstrated to be a wonder that fundamentally and quickly impacts many layers of our general public. In spite of the numerous control measures embraced to restrict Coronavirus transmissions, like the end of boundaries and the presentation of times of lockdown, we are seeing upwards of 116 million affirmed cases and multiple million passings in 235 unique nations, as revealed by the World Association Wellbeing (WHO) toward the finish of February 2021. Genuine worries about medical care frameworks’ ability have emerged because of the extraordinary interest for wellbeing administrations, particularly concerning distraught states. In this situation, techniques ready to accelerate demonstrative methodology, improve observing and following abilities, foresee the transformative phases of the virus just as its consequences for society, and reproduce the aftereffects of a regulation system, a clinical convention, or another particle, can address a progressive achievement in the advancement of the world in confronting these sensational occasions.
Before the world was even mindful of the danger presented by the Covid (Coronavirus), computerized reasoning (artificial intelligence) frameworks had identified the flare-up of an obscure kind of pneumonia in Individuals’ Republic of China (in the future “China”). As the episode has now turned into a worldwide pandemic, computer based intelligence devices and advancements can be utilized to help endeavors of strategy producers, the clinical local area, and society everywhere to deal with each phase of the emergency and its outcome: location, anticipation, reaction, recuperation, and to speed up research.AI devices and procedures can help policymakers and the clinical local area comprehend the Coronavirus infection and speed up research on medicines by quickly breaking down huge volumes of exploration information. Computer based intelligence text and information mining instruments can uncover the infection’s set of experiences, transmission, and diagnostics, the board measures, and examples from past pestilences.
Profound learning models can assist with anticipating old and new medications or medicines that may treat Coronavirus. A few organizations are utilizing artificial intelligence to recognize medicines and foster model vaccines.Dedicated stages or fora permit the solidification and sharing of multidisciplinary mastery on artificial intelligence, including globally. The US government for instance has started a discourse with worldwide government science pioneers that incorporates utilizing computer based intelligence to speed up examination of Covid writing made accessible utilizing the Kaggle stage.
Admittance to datasets in the study of disease transmission, bioinformatics and atomic demonstrating is being given, for example through the Coronavirus Open Exploration Dataset Challenge by the US government and accomplice associations that makes accessible more than 29 000 scholastic examination articles for Covid and Coronavirus.
Registering power for artificial intelligence is likewise being made accessible by innovation organizations like IBM, Amazon, Google and Microsoft; people giving PC preparing power (for example Folding@home); and by open private endeavors like the Coronavirus Elite Registering Consortium and simulated intelligence for Wellbeing.
Inventive methodologies including prizes, open-source coordinated efforts, and hackathons, are speeding up research on artificial intelligence driven answers for the pandemic. For instance, the Unified Realm’s “CoronaHack – computer based intelligence versus Coronavirus” looks for thoughts from organizations, information researchers and biomedical analysts on utilizing simulated intelligence to control and deal with the pandemic.
To battle falsehood – the Coronavirus “infodemic” – interpersonal organizations and web search tools are utilizing customized man-made intelligence data and instruments and depending on calculations to discover and eliminate tricky material on their foundation.
Menial helpers and chatbots have been conveyed to help medical services associations, for instance in Canada, France, Finland, Italy, the US, and by the American Red Cross. These instruments help to emergency individuals relying upon the presence of manifestations.
Medical care associations are in a dire requirement for dynamic advancements to deal with this infection and help them in getting legitimate ideas progressively to stay away from its spread. Artificial intelligence works in a capable manner to impersonate like human insight. It might likewise assume an essential part in comprehension and proposing the advancement of an antibody for Coronavirus. This outcome driven innovation is utilized for legitimate screening, breaking down, forecast and following of current patients and logical future patients. The huge applications are applied to tracks information have affirmed, recuperated, and demise cases.
The extraordinary speed of endeavors to address the Coronavirus pandemic circumstance is utilized by large information and man-made consciousness (artificial intelligence). Different branches of artificial intelligence have been utilized in a few illness flare-ups prior. Artificial intelligence can assume a fundamental part in the battle against Coronavirus.
Computer based intelligence is in effect effectively utilized in the recognizable proof of illness bunches, observing of cases, forecast of things to come flare-ups, mortality hazard, analysis of Coronavirus, sickness the executives by asset assignment, working with preparing, record support, and example acknowledgment for concentrating on the infection pattern. A few utilizations of simulated intelligence that are accumulating a ton of interest and bringing trusts up in the battle against Coronavirus are as per the following:
MAN-MADE INTELLIGENCE IN EXPECTATION AND FOLLOWING
Computer based intelligence can be saddled for guaging the spread of the infection and growing early admonition frameworks by separating data from web-based media stages, calls, and news locales and give valuable data about the weak districts and for forecast of bleakness and mortality. Bluedot distinguished a bunch of pneumonia cases and anticipated the episode and topographical area of the Coronavirus flare-up dependent on accessible information utilizing AI. HealthMap gathers the openly accessible information on Coronavirus and makes it promptly accessible to work with the powerful following of its spread. As of late, the job of artificial intelligence in ID and determining of Coronavirus episodes by utilizing multitudinal and multimodal information was underscored.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN CONTACT FOLLOWING
Computer based intelligence can increase versatile heath applications where keen gadgets like watches, cell phones, cameras, and a scope of wearable gadget can be utilized for determination, contact following and proficient observing in Coronavirus.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN OBSERVING OF CORONAVIRUS CASES
Artificial intelligence procedures are applied for observing patients in clinical settings and expectation obviously of treatment. In light of the information got from fundamental insights and clinical boundaries, computer based intelligence might give basic data to asset designation and dynamic by focusing on the need of ventilators and respiratory backings in the Emergency unit. Artificial intelligence can likewise be utilised for anticipating the odds of recuperation or mortality in Coronavirus and to give day by day updates, stockpiling and pattern examination and diagramming the course of treatment.
Medical care associations are in dire need for dynamic advancements to deal with this infection and help them in getting legitimate ideas progressively to stay away from its spread. Artificial intelligence works in a capable manner to impersonate human insight. It might likewise assume an essential part in comprehension and proposing the advancement of an antibody for coronavirus. This outcome-driven innovation is utilised for legitimate screening, breaking down, forecast and following of current patients and logical future patients. The huge applications applied to track information have affirmed, recuperated, and demise cases.
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RS 2 lakh crore outlay announced for PLI schemes
Keeping in view India’s vision of becoming ‘Atmanirbhar’ and to enhance India’s Manufacturing capabilities and Exports, an outlay of INR 1.97 lakh crore (US$ 26 billion) has been announced in Union Budget 2021-22 for PLI schemes for 13 key sectors of manufacturing starting from fiscal year (FY) 2021-22.
(Source: Concerned implementing Ministries/ Departments)
The 13 key sectors include already existing 3 sectorsnamely (i) Mobile Manufacturing and Specified Electronic Components, (ii) Critical Key Starting materials/Drug Intermediaries & Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, (iii) Manufacturing of Medical Devices and 10 new key sectorswhich have been approved by the Union Cabinet in November 2020. These 10 key sectors are:
(i) Automobiles and Auto Components, (ii) Pharmaceuticals Drugs, (iii) Specialty Steel, (iv) Telecom & Networking Products, (v) Electronic/Technology Products, (vi) White Goods (ACs and LEDs), (vii) Food Products, (viii) Textile Products: MMF segment and technical textiles, (ix) High efficiency solar PV modules, and (x) Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery.
PLI Scheme for an additional sector, Drones and Drone Components, has also been approved by the Union Cabinet in September 2021. With the announcement of PLI Schemes, significant creation of production, employment, and economic growth is expected over the next 5 years and more.
The PLI schemes are being implemented by the concerned Ministries/ Departments. A statement on details received from concerned Ministries/Departments regarding investment made by various sectors after 1st April, 2021, to avail Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme is placed in the table below:
There is no plan to relax Production Linked Incentive Scheme for White Goods.
This information was given by the Minister of State in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Som Parkash, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha today.
RS 56,000 CRORE RELEASED TO CLEAR DUES TO EXPORTERS
Government has released Rs 56,027 crore in order to clear pending export incentive dues to exporters, which is for various Schemes namely: Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) – Rs 33,010 crore, Service Exports from India Scheme (SEIS) – Rs 10,002 crore, Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL) – Rs 5,286 crore, Rebate of State Levies (RoSL) – Rs330 crore, Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP) – Rs 2,568 crore and other legacy Schemes like Target Plus Scheme (TPS), Focus Product Scheme (FPS) etc. – Rs 4,831 crore. This includes support for exports made under RoDTEP and RoSCTL Schemes during the 4th quarter of FY 2020-21. It is estimated that such benefits would be disbursed to more than 45,000 exporters, out of which around 98% may fall in the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) category.
Clearance of dues under these Schemes is dependent on meeting the eligibility criteria by the applicant exporter, whose applications are scrutinized for any deficiency. The process of approval of complete applications under these Schemes varies. In certain Schemes, such as MEIS, ROSCTL and ROSL, online applications are largely system approved, whereas for SEIS, TPS, FPS online applications require manual scrutiny and examination of documents. Accordingly the detail of exporters’ dues state-wise isnot maintained.
To reach the target, some of the key schemes/interventions taken by the Government are:
i. The Foreign Trade Policy 2015-20 has been extended upto31.03.2022 to provide a stable regime during the COVID-19 pandemic, wherein Schemes such as the Advance Authorization Scheme and the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme are being implemented to enable duty free import of raw materials and capital goods for export production.
ii. Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP) Scheme has been introduced with a budget of Rs 12,454 crore for FY 2021-22.
iii. Rebate of State and Central Levies and Taxes (RoSCTL) Scheme for apparel and made-up exports has been extended till March 2024 with existing rates.
iv. Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme for specified agriculture products is being implemented to provide assistance for the international component of freight and marketing of agricultural produce and to promote brand recognition for Indian agricultural products in the specified overseas markets.
v. A common digital platform for Certificate of Origin (CoO) has been launched to increase Free Trade Agreement (FTA) utilization by exporters.
vi. Monthly monitoring of exports for 200 countries and 31 commodity groups is being done.
vii. Under the aegis of “Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav”, VanijyaSaptah was celebrated during 21-26th September 2021 to reach out to members of industry, exporters, association and State/Union Territory Governments for awareness and interaction on exports and various export related issues.
viii. In order to leverage full export potential, districts are being promoted as Exports Hubs by identifying products and services with export potential of each district.
ix. Exports of services is being supported through negotiating meaningful market access through multilateral, regional and bilateral trade agreements and through participation in and organization of international fairs/exhibitions like the Global Exhibition on Services.
x. An ‘Action Plan for Champion Sectors in Services’ to give focused attention to identified Champion Services Sectors through identified nodal Ministries/Departments is also in place.
xi. Assistance is being extended to exporters under the Market Access Initiative (MAI) scheme for various activities such as export market research, product development, product registration, organizing / participating in fairs, exhibitions and Buyer Seller Meets (BSMs) abroad, Reverse Buyer Seller Meets etc.
xii. In order to have a coordinated and focused attention on development of export infrastructure, a working group on infrastructure up-gradation has been constituted under National Committee on Trade Facilitation (NCTF) and a National Trade Facilitation Action Plan (NTFAP) has been formulated. This includes measures for improving road and rail connectivity to ports and smart gates at sea ports.
This information was given by the Minister of State in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Anupriya Patel, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha today.
CONSTITUTIONALITY OF MARITAL RAPE IN INDIA: AN ANALYSIS IN THE LIGHT OF ARTICLES 14 & 21
Recently, Chhattisgarh High court ruled that the sexual intercourse between man and wife is not rape even if it is done by force. In India, primarily Section 375 of Indian Penal Code (herein after referred as IPC) deals with the rape. The codified section of 375 includes all forms of sexual assault which involves all nonconsensual intercourse with a woman. Section 375 of the IPC reads as “Rape.—A man is said to commit “rape” who, except in the case hereinafter excepted, has sexual intercourse with a woman under circumstances falling under any of the six following descriptions:…….”— However, exception 2 of this section exempts unwilling sexual intercourse between a husband and a wife when it is done with over fifteen years of age and thus the act is protected from prosecution. According to the current prevailing law, it is presumed that a wife has already delivered his perpetual consent to have sex with her husband when she enters into marital relations. Around the globe, almost all countries have criminalized the marital rape. However, India is among the other thirty-six countries that still have not criminalized the marital rape. But, it is also notable that Supreme Court of India in the Judgment of Independent Thought v. Union of India, have criminalized the unwilling sexual contact with a wife between the age of fifteen and eighteen years. In this article, we will see the constitutional validity of Exception 2 of the Section 375.
VIOLATIVE OF ARTICLE 14 OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION.
Article 14 of the Indian Constitution states that “the state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India”. In one hand, where the constitution provides equality to all, on the other hand, the criminal law discriminates the female who have been raped by their own husbands.
This law finds its footprint in the colonial era. At that time the women were treated as a cattle and this law is based on the “Doctrine of Coverture”. However, the time has been changed now and women must get their rights which are enshrined under the Constitution of India.
Exception 2 of Section 375, is inconsistent with the provision of Article 14 insofar it is discriminatory in nature. This section creates two different classes of women based on the marriage status. This classification is constitutionally invalid and is inconsistent with the doctrine laid down in the judgment of Budhan Choudhary v State of Bihar and State of West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar, where it was held that the classification should have some rational nexus to the objective that the act seeks to achieve. However, in the current scenario, exception 2 of section 375 doesn’t qualify the ‘reasonable test’ as it simply exempts husbands from punishment, which is totally contradictory with the objective. Furthermore, this exception also encourages husbands to establish forcefully sexual intercourse with their wives, as the act of husband is neither discouraged nor penalized by the law. Therefore, no rational nexus can be inferred between the classification created by this exception and the underlying objective of act. Thereby, it doesn’t satisfy the ‘reasonableness test’ and therefore it is violative of Article 14 of the Indian Constitution.
VIOLATION OF ARTICLE 21.
Article 21 of the Indian Constitution states that “no person shall be denied of his life and personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law.” Supreme Court while interpreting the clause of Article 21, in the judgment of State of Karnataka v. krishnappa, it was observed that “Sexual violence apart from being a dehumanizing act is an unlawful intrusion of the right to privacy and sanctity of a female”. Furthermore, in the same judgment the court further observed that whenever a non-consensual sexual intercourse takes place, it amounts to physical as well as sexual violence. Later on, Supreme Court in the year 2009, in the judgment of Suchita Srivastava v. Chandigarh Administration, while dealing with Article 21, equated the right to make choices related to sexual activity with rights to personal liberty, privacy, dignity, and bodily integrity.
Recently, Supreme Court in the year 2018, in the landmark judgment of Justice K.S. Puttuswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India, recognized the ‘right to privacy’ as a fundamental right. Furthermore, it was also observed that the right to privacy includes “decisional privacy reflected by an ability to make intimate decisions primarily consisting of one’s sexual or procreative nature and decisions in respect of intimate relations”. The above decision of the court doesn’t create any difference between married and unmarried women. Therefore, it is applicable universally and a woman doesn’t losses the rights enshrined under article 21 after the marriage.
Moreover, exception 2 is also inconsistent with Article 21’s ‘right to live with a healthy and dignified life’ as held in the judgment of C.E.S.C. Ltd. v. Subhash Chandr.
The above discussion clearly shows that exception 2 of section 375 clearly violates Article 14 and 21 of the Indian Constitution. Renowned scholar Dr. Br. Ambedkar once observed that “I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress women have achieved”. In India, which is always knows for its vast diversity and culture, such laws prevailing is a dark side of it. Women should not be treated merely as an object. They must be stand on equal footage. Now, it is high time when Indian criminal jurisprudence should strike it down.
Femtech Apps: An Analysis
Since times immemorial, women’s reproductive rights and allied healthcare have been deliberated upon behind closed doors. Even in the 21st century, these pressing issues have been largely stigmatised and have not received the recognition that they deserve. The scales were tilted in favour of women after the arrival of ‘Femtech’. Now, women can count upon such apps which provide them with a plethora of solutions including menstrual cycle tracking, pregnancy tracking and fertility solutions. Female technology commonly abbreviated as Femtech entails creation of hygiene products, reproductive health monitoring systems and other digital applications that empower a woman by keeping her abreast of her less talked about but significant, reproductive health. A report by Emergen Research estimated the global market size for Femtech to be around USD 60.01 billion by 2027. The rationale behind the tremendous popularity of this novel industry is its huge target audience which constitutes 50% of the global population.
ARE WOMEN, COMMODITIES MASQUERADING AS USERS FOR FEMTECH APPS?
The leading Femtech apps like Flo, My Calendar, Clue, Maya and Ovia enjoy millions of downloads on Google Playstore. Their remarkable success makes it all the more imperative to address the issues encircling them. Women share their extremely intimate and sensitive information with these apps including the duration of their menstrual cycle, mood swings, the last time the user had unprotected sexual intercourse and whether she is trying to get pregnant. The enormous faith and confidence reposed by a female upon these apps is quite conspicuous given that she is apprehensive about sharing such information even with the closest people in her life. It is understandable that these apps require particulars of the user for processing and delivering the accurate outcome without which they cannot function effectively. Nevertheless, the chink in the armour is that this data is being shared with third parties without the informed consent of the user. So, you never know where your information might end up! According to a significant report published by the Norwegian consumer council, an advocacy group revealed that multiple apps including Clue transmitted personal information of its users to at least 135 companies or data brokers. These entities consolidated sensitive data received from myriad sources to create digital profiles of the consumers that are further exploited for online targeted advertising. Its detrimental impact can be discerned where several women are spammed by online advertisements related to diapers after they start using a pregnancy app. ‘Menstrual/Intimate Surveillance’ can be observed as a phenomenon directly emanating from circulating personal data of female users. Every minute step taken on a Femtech app is watched, recorded and processed by hundreds of suspicious agencies for their dystopian ways. This manifests as being a downright intrusion and an encroachment over the right to privacy of a woman.
APERTURES IN REGULATORY STANDARDS AROUND THE WORLD
Even the law does not come to the rescue of these women who continue to be susceptible to data exploitation by these Femtech apps. With respect to data protection laws, European Union (EU) observes that 12 non-EU countries have an acceptable legal framework for data security.
USA has Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 1996 which caters to patients’ privacy concerns by defining ‘Protected Health Information’ (PHI) that specific entities are mandated to protect. These encompass healthcare providers, clearinghouses and business associates. The Femtech apps can come within the purview of HIPAA only under the third category, business associates because they are independent corporate houses that provide specialized technology. Nonetheless, they evade liability and keep themselves safe from any legal ramifications. EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) can be viewed as a silver lining. It is a stringent legislation that administers how businesses ought to safeguard the confidentiality of digital personal information of EU residents. GDPR places the explicit and unconditional consent of the users at the highest pedestal without which their data cannot be transmitted to a third party at any cost. It is commendable that the residents of the EU are protected by a sound legal framework as regards data security. At the same time, it cannot be denied that the Femtech apps cater to women in non-EU jurisdictions as well who remain bereft of the protection offered by GDPR. Under these circumstances, it becomes imperative for the Femtech apps to have a universal policy addressing this issue.
ABSENCE OF DATA GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK IN INDIA
Closer home, a path-breaking judgement Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) and Anr v. Union of India and Ors. transformed the privacy landscape. The Supreme Court of India recognized the right to privacy as a fundamental right under Article 21 of the Constitution. It further held that “….from the right to privacy in this modern age emanate certain other rights such as the right of individuals to exclusively commercially exploit their identity and personal information, to control the information that is available about them on the “world wide web” and to disseminate certain personal information for limited purposes alone.” To follow the judgement in its letter and spirit, Srikrishna Committee was constituted by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). It submitted a comprehensive report on 27 July 2018 which was later codified as the draft Personal Data Protection (PDP) Bill, 2018. The revised version of this draft was introduced before the Lok Sabha on 11th December, 2019 and was referred to a Joint Parliamentary Committee, formed exclusively for providing recommendations to the PDP Bill, 2019. The Bill once passed would be an immaculate attempt at bringing India at par with other jurisdictions, especially the EU. It prescribes a robust mechanism for notifying the user before his/her data is collected and mandates unambiguous consent of the user concerning sensitive data which can be easily withdrawn, as well. The Bill goes a step further by providing a host of rights including but not limited to, right to access and correction. Hopefully, the revered Parliament will soon make history by passing the first, one of its kind Data Protection law in our country.
THE ROAD AHEAD
We acknowledge that Femtech apps are quite efficacious and are empowering women to take charge of their health and body. Nevertheless, the unwavering trust that women have in them should not be compromised for ulterior motives. In other words, these apps can turn into Frankenstein monsters if data exploitation is trivialised.
At the cost of repetition, it is re-iterated that the right to privacy loses its true essence if Femtech apps are given leeway to commercialise intimate data. Henceforth, states should realise the significance of the interface between health, technology and confidentiality.
Vehicle Scrappage Rules’ Enforcement in current times
In the Union Budget 2021, the country’s Finance Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitaraman has introduced vehicle scrappage policy where the reason for its introduction is to bring down pollution levels across the nation and to uplift the automobile industry.
36. We are separately announcing a voluntary vehicle scrapping policy, to phase out old and unfit vehicles. This will help in encouraging fuel-efficient, environment friendly vehicles, thereby reducing vehicular pollution and oil import bill. Vehicles would undergo fitness tests in automated fitness centres after 20 years in case of personal vehicles, and after 15 years in case of commercial vehicles. Details of the scheme will be separately shared by the Ministry.”
On 18th March 2021, the Motor Vehicles (Registration and Functions of Vehicle Scrapping Facility) Rules, 2021 draft was issued vide notification by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The Draft Motor Vehicles (Registration and Functions of Vehicle Scrapping Facility) Rules, 2021 aims to the establishment of Registered Vehicle Scrapping Facility (RVSF) and regulate automobile collection, scrapping and recycling centres, dismantling automobiles etc.
ELIGIBILITY TO GET SCRAPPED
It is clearly said in the draft rules, the vehicles not renewed under Rule 52 of Central Motor Vehicle Rules 1989, vehicles not granted with fitness certificate under section 62 of MV Act, 1988, vehicles damaged in natural disaster, fire, accidents, riots or owner himself certifies his vehicle a scrap, vehicles which are declared obsolete by state or central organizations of government, vehicle bought by any agency even RVSF in an auction for scrapping, vehicles outlived utility, manufacturing rejects and test vehicles certified by vehicle OEM and vehicles auctioned, abandoned or impounded by any Enforcement Agency.
So your vehicle in hand has more probability to get scrapped if you have a private vehicle of twenty years or above age or a commercial vehicle of fifteen years or above age and it fails to get fitness certificate.
END OF LIFE OF YOUR VEHICLE
Once your vehicle fails to get fitness certificate or if no valid registration is present or if registrations are cancelled under Chapter IV of MV Act or due to court order or any criteria said above, it will be called as End of Life of your vehicle and you will the Registered Owner of the End of Life Vehicle. Next step is to leave your vehicle for scrapping.
VEHICLE SCRAPPER FACILITY AND PROCEDURE
If you have an entrepreneur inside you, then you can be a registered scrapper by registration of your name or firm or company or establishment for Vehicle Scrapping as prescribed under this Draft Rules and owns and operates the same. To be an efficient scrapper you need to know some elementary definitions which are essential. Legally speaking, Rule 3(l) defines scrapping as the entire process from receipt and record of the “ELV including depolluting, dismantling, segregation of material, safe disposal of non-reusable parts, and issuance of “Certificate of Vehicle Scrapping to the registered owner of a motor vehicle. Clause (m) defines Scrapping Yard as the designated location within the premises of the RVSF where dismantled vehicle parts are processed for further treatment including recycling. Whereas Rule.3(n) says “Treatment” means any activity after the end of life vehicle has been handed over to a collection centre of an RVSF for depollution, dismantling, shearing, shredding, recovery or preparation for disposal of the shredder wastes, and any other operation carried out for the recovery and/or disposal of the end of life vehicle and its components.
Draft Rules says that Eligible RVSF means person, trust, company formed in accordance with the law and entity shall possess Certificate of Incorporation, valid PAN and GST registration. There are additional set of criteria such as evidence for availability of usable land, consent from State Pollution Control Board, obtain quality certification etc. or the undertakings of the concerned documents.
Once you find yourselves eligible, you can file Form-1 as prescribed by Registration Authority along with processing fee of One lakh rupee per RVSF and an Ernest Money Deposit (EMD) in the form of bank guarantee of Ten Lakh Rupees per RVSF with initial authorization period of ninety plus days. Approval or dismissal of your application has to be made by the Registration Authority within sixty days from the date of submission of application. If your application gets rejected the above EMD will be refunded but not the processing fee i.e. One Lakh Rupees.
RVSF is duty bound to keep up connectivity to the VAHAN database, maintain record of scrapping vehicles, issuance of Certificate of Issuance, Certificate of Scrapping and shall have necessary IT systems certifications for safe access to VAHAN database and also install CCTV cameras at the yard, in the customer and vehicle reception area.
Once get registered means its initial validity shall be ten years and can be renewed for another 10 years after the expiry of the initial validity period. If you need to do renewal, you have to submit application under Form-1 and the certificate will be issued under Form- 1A. It is to be noted that the registration issued is not transferable.
Now you have RVSF, and the question is how vehicles will come to you or if you are Registered owner of End of Life Vehicle how will you scrap the vehicle. The registered owner or authorized representative can submit two originals of Form-2 to the Regd. Scrapper or designated collection centre.
If the vehicle does not have valid registration, then Regd. Scrapper or the designated collection centre has to match the identity of registered owner as per VAHAN database with person who handover the vehicle and then receive the vehicle and issue receipt linked to VAHAN database.
In case of impounded vehicles Enforcement Agency shall handover the registered scrapper as per procedure prescribed by the appropriate government. Also Registered scrapper shall match the handed over vehicles with the database of the stolen vehicles held by NRCB as well as with local police before scrapping.
The documents to be produced along with Form-2 to the Registered scrapper include Original Certificate of Registration, authorization from registered owner, if inheritance applicable then death certificate of the registered owner with proof of succession, certificate confirming sale in public auction in his favour and undertaking that there is no pending criminal record or litigation.
The registered scrapper shall also keep self-certified copies of documents prescribed under Rule 10(8) of the Draft Rules.
Registered Scrapper shall always keep in mind that the RVSF established in a state shall accept and scrap the vehicles registered in any of the State/UTs under the jurisdiction of any Registering authority. The whole process shall be smooth linked with VAHAN and on PAN India basis irrespective of the location of any vehicle registering authority.
Being a Registered Owner of End of Life Vehicle handed over to registered scrapper, shall always be keen to collect Certificate of Deposit from the scrapper only by which the owner will be able to avail benefits for the purchase of new vehicle. This certificate is tradeable and once utilized will be stamped as cancelled by the agency providing benefits to the holder of said certificate. Matching entries shall also be made by the RVSF on VAHAN portal.
These are also additional provisions on removal of fuel, hazardous substance etc. from vehicles is discussed which has to be ensured by the registered scrapper before scrapper.
Certificate of Vehicle Scrapping shall be provided by the registered scrapper after completing necessary treatment including digital photograph of the cut out of Chassis in Form-4 to update national register VAHAN database and inform competent authority on the same. Central government shall maintain a separate record on the same.
The Draft Rule further concentrates on detailing the description of scrapping yard vide Rule 13 which a proposed registered scrapper shall always look into, before applying for the registration. It is also to be noted by the Registered Scrappers that your RVSF facility will be subject to audit and certification which shall be revalidated at least three months before its expiry.
DISPUTES & ADJUDICATION
Further the Registration has the right and authority to inspect upon on receipt of complaint, report of non-compliance from appropriate authority and shall prepare Report of Inspection. A copy shall be given to the scrapper. After providing opportunity to hearing to the Regd. Scrapper the authority may pass speaking order to cancel or suspend the authorization for the facility. Appeal can be filed by the aggrieved party to the Commissioner of Transport within thirty days of passing such order. There is an appeal fee of Ten Thousand Rupees. The said appeal shall be disposed in fourteen days.
DRAFT RULES AND PANDEMIC
From the Draft Rules, it is understandable that the implementation will be possible only if there are full-fledged RVSF is available in the states. Also, for commencing RVSF, the applicant has to have risk of Rs. One Lakh as processing fee of Application which is preferably high especially during this pandemic. Also, usable bulk lands are already turned to cemeteries in the first and the ongoing second Covid-19 wave. In this period, people regardless their wealth are securing assets for their health to escape from Corona virus.
Even though vaccine drive is actively conducted all over India, recovery cases are also hiking, many people are again suffering from Covid-19 even after taking two doses of vaccination. Every Today in recent comes up with terrifying news of people succumbed, begging for ventilators and even oxygen.
In addition, M. Vidyasagar (Scientist) and K Vijay Raghavan (Principal Scientific Advisor) vide news reports informed that the third wave of Covid-19 will hit by the January 2022. This is also not good news for people as no preparedness can be taken at ground level as variants of viruses are hitting person to person.
In our view, the government shall take into consideration about the appealing situation of India amidst of Covid-19 and take a prudent decision either by not implement it anytime soon and to decrease the amount fixed as processing fee, bank guarantee and fees for filing appeal.
We suggest that the implementation of this Draft Rules shall be a very slow process and both the proposed registered scrappers and registered owners shall get amicable time and may not take steps that further traumatize the registered owners of the vehicles.
Back from the brink: Positivity is the key
“Anil, it is not good news. You have malignancy”. This was my doctor-friend, Ambrish Mithal on phone. He was the one who had persuaded me to get the necessary tests done after some painless growth was detected in my groin and armpits. I had half expected it as the tuberculosis treatment for this growth was not working and the PET Scan had revealed growth in many parts of the body. Ambrish went on to explain that it was Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, cancer of lymph glands. Though I had lost my mother to cancer a few years ago, I didn’t have much of an idea of this variety of cancer. Hence, all that he told me made no sense except that I had been afflicted with this dreaded disease. My wife, Ruchi was with me. My first reaction was that irrespective of the outcome, we will fight it out. She was a step ahead. She looked totally unfazed and was confident that we will tide over the crisis. If there was any turmoil going inside, she didn’t show it. She remained that way right though the six-month trauma of debilitating medication called chemo-therapy. It was her emotional strength that made all the difference.
I looked at the entire crisis differently. If I were to die, so be it. Everyone does some day. I had always believed in living in the moment and enjoying each one of it simply because I had no control over the consequences. This approach helped. I continued to fire on all cylinders. In a sense, COVID was a blessing in disguise. We were cut off physically from most of the world during the past year and a half. Hence, this quarantine on account of lowered immunity made no difference. I was physically shattered because of extreme weakness, loss of appetite, intermittent nausea, loss of weight, strange sensations, high pulse rate, long sessions of hiccups and sleeplessness. Consequently, I lost 10 Kgs of weight (I had previously thought I didn’t have additional weight to shed) and gained 10 years in age. All this made life extremely difficult. However, I was mentally as alert and as positive as ever, penning down my usual three articles every week and working on my next book, “No More A Civil Servant”. However, the Webinars stopped after some time. Intermittent appearances on television also were without the video feed because I could barely recognize myself in the mirror. To begin with, I could continue with physical exercises but as the body became weaker, I had to give it up. Even walking became difficult
I was lucky to run into a very competent set of doctors at Max Hospital at Saket, New Delhi. Ambrish who works in the same hospital was a great help in introducing me to Dr Harit Chaturvedi who performed the biopsy and, he in turn put me across to Dr Rajesh Naithani, a cool-headed doctor who knew his job. The experience otherwise with the hospital was a forgettable one. I have often wondered how and why do such accomplished doctors work in an environment that is so poorly managed. For a patient it is even worse. The hospital is interested in “catching” you. You are a VIP till then but once you are “caught”, you are left to the wolves. The only concern of the management is to somehow make money. Unfortunately, the doctors who have nothing do with this “mismanagement” end up getting a bad name.
The incompetence and callous attitude of some para-medical staff has to be experienced to be believed. You pay through your nose (though my bills were taken care of CHGS), yet get such poor service. My first experience was blood extraction for tests. The person just shoved the needle while engaging in a casual conversation with his colleague. Experience at Sir Gangaram hospital where I went for PET Scan was totally different. Here the para medical staff was not only polite but competent. When I asked one of them how did they manage such painless insertion of needles, I was pleasantly surprised at his response. He said that since all the patients that came to him were already in pain, they made an effort not to add to their misery.
Obtaining medical reports was another tragic experience at Max. Those at the front desk, almost always indifferent and sometimes even rude, have no clue. They make people run around for locating medical reports. The callous indifference is pretty appalling. The hospital takes regular feedback after each visit but follows up with no action.
Despite all the mismanagement, the hospital continues to attract patients on the strength of the quality of its doctors. My miraculous recovery in just six months after six rounds of chemo-therapy can be attributed totally to Dr Naithani. The para-medical staff, however, gave me an infection on account of their incompetence in inserting the Cannula needle.
The news relating to my ailment wasn’t kept a secret but I made no effort to share it with everyone. Still, many of my friends, former colleagues and relatives got to know of it. Their reaction ranged from disbelief to a variety of positive inputs. Many of them narrated cases where Lymphoma had been cured. All this helped enormously in staying positive. It was also extremely heartening to know that so many cared and prayed for me.
In such a crisis, support from family is the key. I was lucky to have them around. For my wife, everything else became secondary as she committed full time to take care of me. One of the fall-out of chemo-therapy was the loss of taste and appetite. She researched and cooked stuff that I could eat. There was never an occasion that she was found wanting, keeping awake with me during many sleepless nights to ensure that I was not put to any inconvenience. More than anything else, she never lost hope. My daughter, Aditi and son, Apurv were living elsewhere in Delhi.
They had their own professional and personal commitments but they ensured that at least one of them was around to assist my wife. Apurv also ferried me to the hospital and undertook the difficult task of engaging with the “people” at the hospital. In his absence, Divam, my son-in-law deputized for him. During these six months what I missed most was the company of my twin grand-daughters, Dviti and Srisha.
It was a tough journey, perhaps one of the very few in my life that I didn’t enjoy. However, it was an experience where positivity helped. It is not all over yet as there could be recurrence of this deadly disease but this experience will hopefully stand me in good stead.
Anil Swarup has served as the head of the Project Monitoring Group, which is currently under the Prime Minister’s Offic. He has also served as Secretary, Ministry of Coal and Secretary, Ministry of School Education.
The incompetence and callous attitude of some para-medical staff has to be experienced to be believed. You pay through your nose (though my bills were taken care of CHGS), yet get such poor service. My first experience was blood extraction for tests. The person just shoved the needle while engaging in a casual conversation with his colleague. Experience at Sir Gangaram hospital where I went for PET Scan was totally different.
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