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The university provided free lodging, food, clothing, and education to its residents, and as per Hiuen Tsang, the number of priests, students and guests present in the university were always around 10,000.



The recent news of the Taliban terrorists burning down buildings in Afghanistan, automatically brought forth into people’s mind the historical image of massive plunder and burning down of the famous Nalanda university by Turk invader Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji in the late 12th century CE.

Persian historian Minhaj-I-Siraj in his book Tabaqat-I Nasiri recorded the series of plundering raids into Bihar by Khalji, where he described the Nalanda attack: “Muhammad-i-Bakhtiyar, by the force of his intrepidity, threw himself into the postern of the gateway of the place, and they captured the fortress, and acquired great booty. The greater number of the inhabitants of that place was Brahmans [monks], and the whole of those had their heads shaven; and they were all slain. There were a great number of books there; and, when all these books came under the observation of the Musalmans, they summoned a number of Hindus that they might give them information respecting the import of those books; but the whole of the Hindus had been killed. On becoming acquainted [with the contents of those books], it was found that the whole of that fortress and city was a college, and in the Hindustani tongue, they call a college or Vihar.” (Ref: Tabakat-i-Nasiri – Translated by Major H.G. Raverty. p. 552)

As Sukumar Dutta (1962) wrote in his book Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture, Bakhtiyar Khalji, after massacring the scholars and monks and destroying the Nalanda University, further proceeded to destroy the Odantapuri,Vikramshila and Jagaddala universities, killing many Buddhist and Brahmin scholars during these raids. The fire that was set on Nalanda during the Khalji raid also destroyed its famous library that held priceless collections of books and manuscripts. The fire is stated to have burned for many days, and the smoke from the burning manuscripts hung for a long time like a pall of gloom.

Keeping aside the story of death and destruction, this article will take a look at how the Nalanda University, a democratically governed body (as per I-tsing records, 635–713CE), functioned in the pre-Islamic period, when it was counted among the top educational institutes of the world.

Nalanda, before becoming famous as an educational hub, was an ancient village which Alexander Cunningham identified (Ancient Geography of India) with the modern Baragaon in Bihar, near Rajgir. Both Jain and Buddhist texts make many references to this area as a sacred space. In Jain texts we find that Nalanda (also referred to as Burgaon) was then the bahira (suburb) of Rajgir, and it is here that Mahavira had met Gosala, while he was spending 14 monsoons in Nalanda. As per the Buddhist texts, Buddha met a rich citizen named Lepa here, who converted to Buddhism and became his devoted disciple. In another book History of Buddhism, written by Taranath (around 1500 CE), there is recorded the tradition that marked this place as was where Sariputta/Sariputra (considered one of the two first main disciples of Buddha) was born. When Ashoka came to visit Nalanda, he added a large temple beside Sariputta’s chaitya; thus, being the first to turn Nalanda into a vihara.

However, the worldwide fame of Nalanda as an educational institution started from the beginning of the Common Era. Taranath also records an interesting historical fact, where a Brahmin named Suvishnu (contemporary of Nagarjuna, the famous Buddhist philosopher, 3rd century CE), built 108 temples for the preservation of the Abhidharma of the Mahayana sect. It is also here that the famous Buddhist scholar Dinnaga (480 CE-540 CE) defeated the Brahmin Sudurjaya and other tirthakas in philosophical arguments. Thus, it is clear that in the 5th-6th century CE Nalanda was a great seat of learning for the Buddhists and Hindus (Brahmin tirthakas) alike, and many from the latter group made Nalanda their home for this very reason.


According to Hiuen Tsang,Nalanda started to develop as a reputed university by the land endowments gifted to it in honour of Buddha by 500 merchants, which were bought for as many as “10 koti gold coins”. Thereafter a series of endowments continued over the centuries, which came in the form of buildings and land, the latter being used for taking care of the regular maintenance of the university. Hiuen Tsang talks of six such monasteries (residences of the monks) built within the complex by 6 kings—Sakraditya, Buddhagupta, Tathagatagupta, Baladitya, Vajra, and an unnamed king from a central state that is likely to be Harsha. The university was enclosed by a lofty wall that supposedly, as per Hiuen Tsang, had only one gate. The gate opened into the great college from which 8 other halls branched out. The buildings were multistoried ones, lofty, and were adorned with towers, turrets, and observatories. The upper floor rooms, as Hiuen Tsang described them, towered above the clouds, while the high eaves glowed in splendid sunset colours and sparkled in moonlit glories.

An 8th century stone inscription of Yasovarman also gives a similar description of the beauty of the viharavalis (rows of monasteries) of the university. The grounds of the university were equally beautiful with a series of deep translucent ponds that held blue lotus mixed with the deep red of the kanaka flowers. At intervals between the lakes stood the Amra groves that cast their contrasting shades of deep green. The external beauty of these massive awe-inspiring buildings however contrasted with their delicate artistically decorated insides. The outside courts that held the monks’ rooms had dragon-faced projections, delicately carved and ornamented pillars of pearl red, richly decorated balustrades, and the roofs were made of polished tiles that reflected the sunlight in a myriad of colours. These added to the overall beauty of the university, and made it the grandest Sangharama among all the other contemporary ones in India.

Hiuen Tsang writes about a beautiful Buddha image in the Sakraditya vihara, and extols the patronages of the various kings over the centuries that had given Nalanda its grandeur and its beautiful sculptures. During Hiuen Tsang’s time, the king had remitted the revenues of 100 villages for maintenance of the Nalanda vihara. I-tsing, a Chinese monk and interpreter, who had visited the Nalanda university and stayed there for 11 years in the 7th c. CE, recorded that the king had then remitted the revenues of 200 villages for the upkeep of the monastery, and he had seen 8 halls and 300 buildings within the vihara complex. Besides the aforementioned kings who had endowed land and buildings as gifts to the Nalanda vihara, some of the rulers from Maulkhari dynasty also patronised it. However, the biggest benefactions came from the Pala kings of Bengal until the 1200s, as evident from the various found inscriptions that recorded different kinds of royal grants to the vihara, and literary works of those times that speak of the Pala kings’ gifts and grants.

I-tsing, among the various details in his book, gives us the daily meals taken by the monks. As per his records the diet during his time were as per the rules of the Vinaya and comprised of Panchabhojaniyas—rice, boiled mixture of barley and peas, baked cornflour, meat, and cakes; while the Panchakhadaniyas comprised of roots, leaves, flowers, stalks, and fruits. There was also gruel served, made of dry rice and bean soup, in which hot butter sauce (made of melted butter and cream) was added for extra flavor. Milk, ghee, and oil were used in abundance. There were variations based on regional differences of the crops grown, such as, the entire north ate wheat cakes, while west had their baked flour in barley or rice, and the south and east made their baked cakes with rice flour. I-tsing further tells us that a monk’s breakfast generally consisted of rice-water; his lunch thali had rice, butter, milk, sweet melons and other fruits; while his day ended with a light meal as supper or dinner.

The university provided free lodging, food, clothing, and education to its residents, and as per Hiuen Tsang, the number of priests, students, and guests present in the university were always around 10,000. Foreign scholars from China, Korea, Tibet, and Tokhara were regulars at Nalanda, which was globally considered the most advanced research institute for higher studies at that time; and a fellowship from Nalanda was regarded as the highest academic degree of those times. Entrance examinations into Nalanda, an Open School for Discussions (as it described itself back then), were very tough, and as per Hiuen Tsang, only 20% could secure admissions among all the applicants. After entering the institute, the academic life of a student was rigorous, and since the university took care of all other needs, it was expected that the student would give 100% focus on his studies. Fifteen hundred teachers were in charge of the estimated 8,500 students, as per Hiuen Tsang, and 100 lectures were arranged daily, which consisted of both Buddhist and Hindu scripture studies that included study of the Vedas, Yogasastras, and Panini’s grammatical works.

The Nalanda university, during the pre-Islamic times, was truly an open school of discussions, where scholars would hold regular arguments on all religious topics as a way of learning and further adding to their knowledge. It was indeed a place for higher learning in all branches of studies, and claimed the rare merit of collecting all available experts and scholars from all branches of academia under one roof for many centuries.

The author is a well-known travel, heritage and history writer. Views expressed are personal.

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The battle of freedom



S C bose

In the path of achieving freedom, there have been several instances that let us hold our heads high. Every day had been a battle to expel the anarchist Britishers. Here is a list of the days that helped make August 15, 1947, happen.

Swadeshi Movement

The British Viceroy, Lord Curzon, with the aim of weakening the unity and curbing the Nationalist movement, devised a scheme to separate Bengal and reorganise the territorial distributions dividing the Hindus and Muslims in 1905. The “Boycott” resolution was adopted at a conference held at the Calcutta Town Hall on August 7, 1905, thus establishing the Swadeshi movement and bringing its previously fragmented leadership under one leadership. A hartal and a day of sorrow were called in Calcutta on October 16, 1905, the day the division came into effect. People observed a fast, and the kitchen hearth was left unlit. Hindus and Muslims tie Rakhis to each other to symbolise unity. It was successful and the partition had to be annulled.

Azad Hind Bharat

On December 30, 1943, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose hoisted the Indian flag at the Gymkhana ground in Port Blair and declared the island to be independent when the entire nation was clutched under British rule. He further renamed the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as Shaheed and Swaraj to mark the establishment of the Azad Hind Government, which also had its own currency and stamps. Upon raising the Azad Hind flag, Bose, the leader of the Azad Hind Provisional Government, also kept his word that the Indian National Army would be standing on Indian land by the end of 1943.

Champaran Satyagrah

The peasants in the Champaran district of Bihar were made to endure unimaginable hardships when Europeans compelled them to plant indigo, a blue dye. They weren’t paid enough for the indigo, and they couldn’t cultivate the food they needed. Tired of the agony, the peasants turned to Gandhi. As Gandhi’s first Satyagraha movement in India, the Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 is regarded as a pivotal uprising in the history of the Indian Independence Movement.

Civil Disobedience movement

Civil disobedience, also known as passive resistance, is the act of refusing to comply with the requests or orders of a government or occupying power without using force or other aggressive forms of resistance. Its typical goal is to pressure the government or occupying power into making concessions. On April 6, 1930, M.K. Gandhi started the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the government’s salt law by picking up a handful of salt after finishing the illustrious “Dandi March” from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi. He served as the movement’s inspiration and helped to mobilise the population in the liberation battle. Due to the disregard for the salt law, the Civil Disobedience Movement expanded across the nation.

Quit India Movement

August Kranti or the August Movement are other names for the Quit India movement. Mahatma Gandhi began the “do or die” Bharat Chhodo Andolan, often known as the Quit India movement, on August 8, 1942. All of the Congress Working Committee members began to be arrested on August 9 as soon as the movement began. While being placed under house imprisonment, Mahatma Gandhi was brought to Ahmednagar Fort. Approximately 940 persons lost their lives as a result of the British’s harshness during this nonviolent campaign. There were also 1630 injuries. More than 60 000 activists were detained at the same time. However, this movement brought the nation together.

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‘We Women Want’: Fitness on agenda



Clinical nutritionist Dr Ishi Khosla, Fitness Expert Vesna Jacob and Dr Rita Punhani IVF Specialist of Indira IVF appeared on ‘We Women Want’ to discuss fitness tips and bust some diet myths.

The panel stressed that it is important to monitor what you eat but also the timing of the meal. Diet such as intermittent fasting and Ketos were discussed with their pros and cons. An important point was also made regarding fitness that its best to exercise when you can even if its for ten minutes and not wait for the half hour – forty minute slot for a warm up. For as Vesna Jacob said our body is primed to be active, the primitive man did not see a tiger and then say wait let me first warm up before I defend myself. Dr Punhani pointed out how a good diet is essential for a woman’s health in various stages of her life from maturity to motherhood to menopause while Dr Khosla talked of the importance of gut health. The show was moderated by Priya Sahgal, Senior Executive Editor ITV Network.

Catch fresh episodes of ‘We Women Want’ every Saturday at 7:30 PM on NewsX. The program will also streamed live on major OTT platforms- Dailyhunt, Zee5, MX Player, ShemarooMe, Watcho, Mzaalo, Jio TV, Tata Play and PayTm livestreams.

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When we reach our late twenties and early thirties and realise how much we miss good television, we tend to go down the nostalgic path. Growing up, with summer vacations lasting a full month and shorter school days, picking a show to watch was perhaps the most challenging assignment. Our TV schedules were quite set, and included everything from Disney cartoons to Indian comedy. This edition includes a chart of five programmes we watched over and over again as children and would gladly reserve time in our work calendars to watch.


Everyone has heard of “Tom and Jerry”, the only well-known programme where a mouse routinely outwits and humiliates a cat ten times its size. Tom and Jerry had the most straightforward stories, but you never lost interest in them because they were so humorous and snarky. You were eager to learn what new scheme Tom had in mind and how Jerry was going to thwart it. Even though the show ran under a different name and with different studios in each decade, Tom and Jerry continued to air in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and even the 2000s.


For a generation raised during the Pogo and Nickelodeon periods, watching “Takeshi’s Castle” meant seeing people fall into mud puddles. This programme will return in more than 240 markets in 2023 thanks to Amazon Prime. Takeshi’s Castle, an Indian adaptation of a Japanese programme, became well-known for its entertaining chores and Jaaved Jaffrey’s hilarious commentary.


The majority of cartoons from the early 2000s were often highly joyful and heartwarming. However, “Courage the Cowardly Dog” was a show about scary monsters that looked like they could be straight out of some Steven King book or an old horror movie. It wasn’t really the most kid-friendly show, but it had to be one of, if not the all-time popular cartoon of the 2000s.


How we wished we were three magicians who lived in a house where they could make anything happen. For us, that was “Shararat”. This childhood show was almost like a fantasy world for Indian children—a mansion with three generations of magicians living in “Muggleland.” Therefore, we had this tiny region of Indian magicians long before the world had Harry Potter and the country of Hogwarts. It was seasoned with sweetness, spice, and just the proper amount of vice.


Everyone who was born after the 1960s has seen “Scooby-Doo” at some point in their lives. In essence, Scooby, Shaggy’s talking dog, and four youngsters (who appear to be in their mid-20s) look into numerous crimes that happen around town. The twist is always that the crimes were perpetrated by some type of monster, ghost, spirit, beast, or pretty much any extra-natural entity. The characters on the programme were Fred, who was slick and sophisticated, Velma, who was nerdy, Shaggy, who was laid back and easily scared, Scooby, who loved scooby snacks, and Daphne, who played a sort of damsel in distress role.

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Every 10 minutes during the first half, the movie keeps switching its genre, undergoing brilliant tonal shifts with the assurance of a master conductor at work.

Murtaza Ali Khan



Laal Singh Chaddha

The long-awaited Aamir Khan and Kareena Kapoor starrer “Laal Singh Chaddha,” which has finally hit the theatres this week, is an adaptation of the 1986 novel titled “Forrest Gump” by the American author Winston Groom. The novel was famously adapted by Eric Roth for the 1994 Hollywood film of the same name, directed by Robert Zemeckis, which bagged 6 Academy Awards. Directed by Advait Chandan, Laal Singh Chaddha also stars Naga Chaitanya (in his Hindi film debut), Manav Vij, Arun Bali, Mona Singh, and Aaryaa Sharma.

Given the narrative’s sprawling nature, making a film like “Laal Singh Chaddha” is like making 15-20 films. That’s how herculean the task would have been for Aamir, Advait, and the team. Remaking a film like Forrest Gump is no kid’s play. I don’t think anyone but Aamir Khan could have delivered a film of this scope and scale. It’s heartening to see the kind of respect that the film pays to historical accuracy as well as getting the different aspects of Sikhism right.

Every 10 minutes during the first half, the movie keeps switching its genre, undergoing brilliant tonal shifts with the assurance of a master conductor at work. Credit must also go to Atul Kulkarni for beautifully adapting “Forrest Gump” to an Indian setting and for seamlessly weaving the important historical events of the last 40 years into it. When it does the Kargil War, it seems to do it better than ‘Shershaah.’ When it does sports, it seems to match “Bhaag Milkha Bhaag.” When it does comedy, it seems to do it better than most. And as a drama, it really excels in terms of cinematic storytelling for the most part.

“Laal Singh Chaddha” comes across as a breath of fresh air at a time when the Hindi film industry needs it the most. Aamir Khan’s innocence personified as Laal Singh Chaddha, and his chemistry with Kareena Kapoor is the major highlight of the film, along with his bromance with Naga Chaitanya and Manav Vij. There are some beautiful segments of magic realism that are beautifully crafted. Like a boy who walks using crutches, suddenly starts running like P T Usha when subjected to bullying. The colour grading is so good that the movie looks stunning visually, and honestly, I haven’t seen a more beautiful looking period film made in India.

Aamir Khan transforms into ‘Laal Singh Chaddha’ in no time and brings the character to life as only he can. Chaddha’s simplicity, to go with his honesty and a sense of contagious optimism that he carries with him at all times, lights up the screen. Whether he is narrating some story, trying to save lives on a battlefield, or making an effort to sell undergarments, Aamir’s Chaddha always makes us root for him.

Mona Singh is wonderful as Chadda’s loving mother. It’s easily the performance that will take away all the accolades. I was in school when ‘Jassi Jaisi Koi Nahi’ used to air on TV and having seen Mona Singh all these years, I have always known that she is a fine actor, but seeing what she achieves in ‘Laal Singh Chaddha’ made me realise that she is actually one of the finest actors working in the country right now.

But the biggest surprise of the movie is Kareena Kapoor. Who would have thought that a wafer-thin character that Robin Wright played in “Forrest Gump” would become the centrepiece of the Hindi adaptation almost three decades later. This is Kareena Kapoor’s finest performance since ‘Jab We Met.’ It is a layered performance, and we can see the character’s dichotomy throughout the film’s running time.

It can be said with absolute certainty that technology has been put to use to de-age Kareena (and Aamir) for this. But the end result is so good and it makes me particularly happy that we have aced the use of this cutting-edge technology better than what Hollywood did with, say, ‘The Irishman’.

I also would like to praise both Naga Chaitanya and Manav Vij for their wonderful cameos. For me, their characters’ bromance with Laal Singh Chadda is one of the film’s major highlights. It’s a masterstroke to make Manav Vij’s character a soldier from the enemy ranks, as opposed to ‘Forrest Gump’, where Gary Sinise’s Lieutenant character was Gump’s compatriot. I would be remiss to not mention Pritam, Arijit Singh, and Amitabh Bhattacharya, who have done wonderful work with the film’s music, songs, and lyrics. Overall, I must say that Laal Singh Chadda has reinstated my faith in Hindi cinema. It’s not a perfect film. It suffers from pacing issues in the second half. It’s probably not even Aamir’s best work. But it is cinematic storytelling at its purest. Here’s a sprawling period piece oozing with nostalgia and an abundance of love for everything Indian. The naysayers can denounce him, but so long as we have stalwarts like Aamir Khan working in the Hindi film industry, Bollywood is here to stay.

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In the blink of an eye



Gallery Dotwalk is all set to organise a group exhibition show titled “In the Blink of an Eye”. The show, curated by Shruti Ramingaiah, has already started and will be held till 10th September 2022. ‘In the Blink of an Eye’ considers the states of transcending into sleep and being awake as a metaphor to reflect on time as extended, indefinite, and nonconsecutive happening, event, and passage.

The show features ten artists from different cities in India with the diverse practises and approaches they bring to this exhibition. Each artist in this exhibition explores events from the past and even recent times. They reflect on the many meanings of memory, from personal to collective. Going back to their roots, a group of artists revisit their relationship to a site, place, and events.

The ten artists are Bhisaji Gadekar, Chandan Bez Baruah, Jyothi Basu, Kundan Mondal, Midhun Gopi, Rachana Nagarkar, Prajakta Palav Aher, Saju Kunhan, Shruti Mahajan, and Sneh Mehra.

In a candid conversation, curator Shruti Ramingaiah said, “This curatorial is interested in the idea of transition and how we understand the element of time in our everyday and the changing world around us. This show is an attempt to reflect on time that is non-linear. It asks us how we connect with the past, present, and future that are taking place, overlapping simultaneously. The exhibition considers a brief state of transcending into sleep and being awake as a metaphor to explore the possibilities of going beyond our preset notions of time in our daily life. The exhibition probes the viewer to rethink, what it means to be constantly on the move. At the core of all this, how then do we make sense of reality? “

The show will be on view from Tuesday to Sunday from 11 am to 8 pm.

Headquartered at Delhi-NCR, Gallery Dotwalk is an art gallery committed to building an art space that pivots on integrity and genuineness that converses with art enthusiasts around the world, utilising the prowess of technology and positive contributions to the art milieu.

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We all love our little furry friends, don’t we? But what if we tell you that you can actually talk to your pet or any animal around? What if we tell you that you can understand your pet’s feelings and emotions and help them lead a better, happier life?

Sounds unbelievable, right?! But guess what, it’s true. Read on as we decode what “Animal Communication Therapy” is all about. 


Animal Communication Telepathy simply means to connect with animals in order to understand their feelings with the help of intuitive abilities. The word ‘telepathy’ in itself means distance communication, and in this therapy, the communicator or the owner converses with the pet (or even a wild animal) by focusing on their thoughts, feelings, and emotions.

It is similar to the mechanism of counselling and guidance sought by humans, but here it is meant for animals. Once an individual gets connected to the animal, they keep on counselling them and assure that things change for the better.


While there are no clear-cut claims or sureties of this therapy, several researches, academic literature, and animal therapists emphasise that the communication between humans and animals is facilitated because they share similar mental capabilities and perceptions.

Rupert Sheldrake, Director of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at Cambridge University, is one of the notable researchers who explored the psychic connections between humans and animals. He defined this phenomenon as ‘invisible’ connections’ or ‘morphic fields’ created through social interaction.

Since it’s a psychological thing, one needs to believe in the process, as the moment you start to trust, things start working.

Animal communicator Kiran Narang says that this therapy is guided by our belief system, energy, and spirituality.  She adds, “Everything that’s happening around us is a result of the exchange of vibrations, and we all vibrate at a particular frequency. When our frequency matches the animal’s, we connect with them on an emotional, mental, and spiritual level. “


Telepathy with a pet is not at all difficult and just requires learning some basic principles as this art is present in all—it is ‘innate’.

One doesn’t need to be in physical proximity or in front of the pet for telepathic communication. The communicator can talk to the animal even when they are in some other corner of the world, are lost, or are sleeping or eating.

Kiran suggests, “Setting the intention and a desired goal before starting the interaction is important as it helps the communicator or parent calm down, unwind, engage in deep breathing, and slow down their pace. That is how one gets connected to the pet and their frequency. “

One can also do some animal telepathy courses and attend workshops as it aids the process of learning and unlearning.


Animal communication could be done either out of curiosity or when a need arises. It’s just like a normal counselling session or a routine consultation that’s conducted to help and understand pets. This, in turn, also helps their parents. One can also have a session done for their pet to find out what makes them happy or sad, what they like and what they don’t. “If there’s any behavioural problem that the pet or animal is facing, then going for animal telepathy becomes all the way important,” Kiran concludes.

Animal comunicator Kiran Narang said,“Everything that’s happening around us is a result of the exchange of vibrations, and we all vibrate at a particular frequency. When our frequency matches the animal’s, we connect with them on an emotional, mental, and spiritual level.


The benefits that such communication provides for people are widely discussed in Alan Beck and Aubrey H. Fine’s Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy. Researchers and communicators note that animal telepathy leads to an overall sense of happiness, the ability to recover from serious illness and to cope with trauma and loss, and an increased willingness to engage in positive social interactions with others.A BETTER BOND WITH THE PARENT

Once the parent and their pet undergo the telepathic process, a positive change in terms of their bonding and relationship can be observed. The parent gets to know what their pet is feeling and that makes their relationship wholesome. This happens since when one feels the pet’s energy, they make sense of the vibrations and thoughts coming their way.


Since animals are emotional creatures, they feel all sorts of emotions such as anger, joy, grief, etc. just like humans. However, animals can’t vocally express themselves, and so they convey it all telepathically. Establishing a comfortable, safe zone of communication also helps the pets overcome any past traumas or unresolved conflicts from their childhood.


Being a pet owner comes with a lot of added responsibilities, and it becomes very problematic if the pet is not behaving properly, peeing, or littering around. Animal communicator suggests talking to the pet and making them realise that their ways are becoming a hurdle for their owners. Kiran suggests, “Talking it out works the best and is very beneficial as the parent can manage everything and also ensure health and hygiene with ease.”


The process of resolving the problem or issue is a two-way arrangement and is dealt with not only from the pet’s side, but also from the pet owner or parent’s side. The pet owner is asked to look into the problems and amend their ways accordingly. Once the parent changes their behaviour towards the pet, the latter starts showing signs of improvement instantly.

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