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Amid record-shattering heatwaves in many parts of the country, it is imperative to protect ourselves. As temperatures are set to remain high, the punishing heat could cause serious health concerns for the vulnerable, including infants, the elderly, and people with chronic diseases. Heat does not just impact the body; it also impacts the mind and our cognitive ability. 


Extreme exposure to heat can lead to dizziness, nausea, headache, muscle pain, dehydration, heat exhaustion, and even heat stroke. Heat can also increase the risk of a number of other conditions such as skin infection, kidney problems, and preterm birth among pregnant women. It is not just extreme heat that poses a risk, even moderately hot days can affect our health. 


A high temperature negatively affects our mental health. It impacts our cognition ability and other aspects of mental health and well-being. Further, during hot summer days, people may suffer from anxiety disorders and dementia. 

Hot weather is also associated with lower performance on standardised tests, higher risk of judgment errors, etc. 


• First and foremost, it is imperative to be aware of the health risks due to extreme heat. Step out only when required. Drink a lot of water, and find places to cool off when needed. Take cool showers or baths once you are back home. 

•Monitor your kids and elderly closely. Schedule their outdoor activities carefully. Look out for signs of heatstroke and take medical advice if they show any symptoms. Never leave your children or pets in cars while you are running errands. It can be fatal! Lastly, check on a friend or neighbour to see if they are doing fine. 

•Summer calls for a change in diet. Eat a balanced and healthy diet. Lighter meals with green vegetables, fruits, herbs, and fluids help us keep hydrated and protect us from health concerns such as heatstroke, acidity, loss of electrolytes, vomiting, and diarrhoea. They also enhance your immunity. 

•When it comes to sleeping in the heat, it is always challenging. But there are a few tips and tricks to overcome this challenge. Follow a healthy sleep routine, avoid caffeine, and have strict screen time hours before bedtime. These measures will help your brain to slow down and get ready for a peaceful sleep.  

Hotter days are becoming a common phenomenon now, and we are witnessing more heat-related illnesses in recent years. Therefore, it is important to avoid high temperatures as much as possible not just to avoid a cognitive decline, but also to minimise adverse, long-term effects of extreme heat. It goes without saying that every community is different in terms of risks, vulnerabilities, and resources. Thus, there is a need to develop a heat action plan at the local level which is supported and promoted by people to keep everyone updated with heath events to prepare them to tackle extreme heat efficiently. 

The writer is Medical Director- Dr. Hedgewar Hospital, BAVP.

Hotter days are becoming a common phenomenon now, and we are witnessing more heat-related illnesses in recent years. It is important to avoid high temperatures as much as possible not just to avoid a cognitive decline, but also to minimise adverse, long-term effects of extreme heat.

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Health & Wellness

6 Amazing Products That Will Surely Cure All Your Digestive Problems



Digestive problems can be disastrous, causing severe discomfort. The digestive tract plays a significant role in human health. It is responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the elimination of waste. Due to different reasons, people suffer digestive problems such as bloating, abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, diarrhea, and gas.

In addition, people with digestive issues may develop health conditions such as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), heartburn, and Crohn’s Disease, which are very detrimental and can lead to serious health problems. The following article will look at some of the few products to help cure digestive problems.

Delta-8 THC

Most people probably take cannabis products for fun or self-satisfaction without understanding some health benefits. Apart from giving you a relaxed feeling and changing your moods, delta 8 THC can be beneficial in treating digestive problems. Delta 8 has excellent effects on the digestive tract and helps reduce any digestive symptoms. For example, delta 8 THC can help treat inflammatory bowel disease, one of the digestive problems that most people suffer. In addition, it helps to reduce stomach emptying, reduce abdominal pain, increase appetite, and minimize bowel movement frequency.

There is a wide variety of delta 8 products to order to treat your digestive problems. People who go through surgeries or are under cancer medication undergo digestive issues such as vomiting and indigestion. Delta 8 can help reduce such symptoms effectively. However, before using cannabis products to treat digestive problems, you need to consult a doctor for a prescription of the appropriate doses to take. Further, if you are under medication with other drugs, you need the best advice regarding the use of cannabis in conjunction with the medicine you are taking.

Probiotics Products

Taking food and drinks rich in probiotics can be very helpful in easing digestive problems—for example, yogurt made from fermented milk. Yogurt contains probiotics in the form of friendly bacteria that live in the digestive tract and helps to improve digestion and keep the gut healthy. Though probiotics should occur naturally in the body and especially in the stomach, you can boost it by taking foods such as yogurt rich in probiotics. Probiotics help ease digestive issues such as diarrhea, constipation and bloating.

However, you have to ensure that it contains probiotics when buying yogurt. You can get specific about this by looking at the package to ensure it has a live and active culture description. Probiotics in yogurt contain living organisms such as bacteria and yeast similar to those in the gut and play a crucial role in digestion. Taking yogurt as a supplement can help treat digestive problems and improve general digestive health.

Dark Green Vegetables

Fiber plays a vital role when it comes to digestion. Green vegetables are a great source of insoluble fiber. Insoluble fiber is responsible for adding bulk to the stool and quickening its pace through the digestive tract. In addition, green vegetables are also rich in magnesium and are vital in relieving constipation by improving muscle contraction in the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the most popular dark green vegetables that are beneficial to your health and should consider adding to your diet include broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, and other leafy greens.

Further, green leafy vegetables contain sugar that feeds the gut with friendly bacteria, which can help digestion and impair some contagious bacteria that can cause serious illness.


Licorice has been vital in treating many symptoms of indigestion, such as heartburn and acid reflux. Though licorice is very effective, it should only be taken when purified as an unpurified form can lead to serious side effects such as increasing high blood pressure. One of the purified licorices is DGL, as it has no chemicals and does not cause any side effects. However, pregnant women should not take DGL or another licorice supplement without the doctor’s prescription.  


Ginger is one of the products that has been widely used to treat digestive problems and other conditions such as stomachaches. In addition, pregnant women experiencing issues such as nausea and vomiting during pregnancy can use ginger which is a very effective natural medicine. You can take ginger in different forms, such as powder, tablets, capsules, or freshly cut roots. However, you should limit the number of doses and take small amounts per day. Ginger helps provide some comfort in the stomach and ease the discomfort caused by gas and constipation.


Glutamine is a natural nutrient found in the body and vital in supporting the intestines and other organs responsible for digestion. Supplementing your naturally occurring glutamine with L-glutamine can help relieve diarrhea caused by surgery, stress, or infections. In addition, l-glutamine can be vital to people who have too many unfriendly bacteria in their digestive system as it helps fight them. People taking cancer drugs or those who have undergone an intestine surgery should take l-glutamine supplements to improve the absorption of nutrients.


In conclusion, digestive problems can cause severe pain to your health and even lead to detrimental health risks. However, you can naturally mitigate this problem by using the natural product regularly to treat them or prevent them. 

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Health & Wellness

Infertility: Causes, diagnosis, risks and treatment




Infertility is a disease of the male or female reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

Infertility can be primary or secondaryPrimary infertility is when a pregnancy has never been achieved by a person, and secondary infertility is when a woman can’t get pregnant again after having at least one successful pregnancy.


Infertility may be caused by a number of different factors, in either the male or female reproductive systems. However, it is sometimes not possible to explain the causes of infertility.

In the female reproductive system, infertility may be caused by:

• Tubal disorders such as blocked fallopian tubes, which are in turn caused by untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or complications of unsafe abortion, postpartum sepsis or abdominal/pelvic surgery.

•Uterine disorders could be inflammatory in nature (such as endometriosis), congenital in nature (such as septate uterus), or benign in nature (such as fibroids).

•Disorders of the ovaries such as polycystic ovarian syndrome and other follicular disorders.

•Disorders of the endocrine system causing imbalances of reproductive hormones. The endocrine system includes hypothalamus and the pituitary glands. Examples of common disorders affecting this system include pituitary cancers and hypopituitarism.

In the male reproductive system, infertility may be caused by:

•Obstruction of the reproductive tract causing dysfunctionalities in the ejection of semen. This blockage can occur in the tubes that carry semen (such as ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles). Blockages are commonly due to injuries or infections of the genital tract.

•Hormonal disorders leading to abnormalities in hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and testicles. Hormones such as testosterone regulate sperm production. Example of disorders that result in hormonal imbalance includes pituitary or testicular cancers.

•Testicular failure to produce sperm, for example, Overheated testicles. Causes include an undescended testicle, a varicocele or varicose vein in the scrotum, the use of hot tubs, wearing tight clothes, and working in hot environments or medical treatments that impair sperm-producing cells (such as chemotherapy). Mumps If occurs after puberty, inflammation of the testicles may affect sperm production.

•Abnormal sperm function and quality, there are conditions or situations that cause abnormal shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm negatively affect fertility. For example, the use of anabolic steroids.

•Anti-sperm antibodies

Environmental and lifestyle factors can affect both male and female fertility such as smoking, excessive alcohol intake and obesity. In addition, exposure to environmental pollutants and toxins can be directly toxic to gametes (eggs and sperm), resulting in their decreased numbers and poor quality, leading to infertility.


•Pelvic examination including PAP smear

•Blood tests like, hormone levels – Thyroid, AMH, FSH and LH

•Transvaginal USG


•Saline sonohysterogram

•Hysterosalpingography (HSG)



•Semen analysis

•Blood test–Testosterone, Thyroid, Genetic blood test for chromosomal abnormality

•Scrotal USG


•Age above 40 years (male) and above 32 years (female)

•Smoking and alcohol

•Being overweight/obesity

•Not enough exercise

•Hormone Imbalance

•History of Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs)

•Irregular periods

•Mental stress

•Exposure to some chemicals: pesticides, herbicides, metals, such as lead, and solvents.

•Chemo or Radiotherapy

•Drug addiction


Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of infertility, in form of


•Surgery: blockage in tube that store and carry sperm (male) or blockage in fallopian tube/fibroid/polyp/endometriosis (female).

•Assisted conception

a. IUI (Intrauterine insemination): Used long thin tube to place sperm directly into the uterus.

b. IVF (In vitro fertilisation): Harvesting egg at the end of stimulation and placing sperm and egg together in a lab dish. The sperm fertilises the egg. Fertilised egg is transferred into the uterus.

c. ICSI (Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection): tiny needle, called a micropipette, is used to inject a single sperm into the centre of the egg.

d. Sperm or egg donation

e. Assisted hatching

f. Electric or vibratory stimulation to achieve ejaculation

g. Surgical sperm aspiration


•Eat a well-balanced diet and maintain a healthy weight.

•Don’t smoke, misuse drugs or drink excessively.

•Get treated for STIs.

•Limit exposure to toxins.

•Stay physically active, but don’t overexercise.

The writer is Chief of Laboratory Services (Rajkot, Gujarat), Metropolis Healthcare Limited.

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Health & Wellness




Arnab Basumallik, Director, Edwards Lifesciences India Private Limited spoke to The Daily Guardian Review about how essential is it to bring in a code of conduct for the medical device industry and the role of government in widening the circle of probity. Excerpts:

Q. How are medical devices characteristically different from pharmaceuticals?

A. As per the WHO study, medical devices vary from pharmaceuticals in the following ways.

•      Innovation: Medical devices undergo incremental improvements, with a relatively short commercial life cycle of about 18 months on average.

•       Diversity:  Medical devices, even in the same category, vary in size, complexity, packaging, efficacy, safety and use.

•       Durability: Medical devices have a wide range of durability with extremes ranging from a few minutes for disposable devices to several decades for some implantable devices and medical equipment.

•    User: There is often a learning curve associated with the use of medical devices, particularly complex high-tech devices, with a need for technical training and support.

•     After service:  Medical devices require service and maintenance, unlike drugs.

Even Pharma Bureau under DoP has identified the following characteristics for medical devices, which are quite different from pharma.

• The medical device industry is highly capital intensive and has a long gestation period to develop the market.

• Requires continuous induction of new technologies.

• Requires continuous training of health providers to adapt to new technologies.

• Requires a well-developed eco-system and innovation cycle, which is yet to be fully developed in India, unlike pharma. The med-tech industry depends on imports up to an extent of 86%. Domestic manufacturing is limited to surgical, cardiac stents and general medical devices and consumables.

Q. How essential is it to bring in a code of conduct for the medical device industry?

A. As mentioned above, the medical device industry is continuously evolving with a relatively short commercial life cycle of about 18 months on average. Thus, there is often a learning curve associated with the use of medical devices, particularly complex high-tech devices, with a need for technical training and support. Also, since the technologies are fast evolving, the training of these technologies is often not there in the regular medical university curriculum.  

The second most important factor is diversity. Even in the same category, medical devices vary in size, complexity, packaging, efficacy, safety, and use. Hence, it is a regulatory responsibility of the manufacturer of that innovation, to train the clinicians/ healthcare professionals before launching the technologies in the country, to ensure compliant and safe usage of the product on a patient.

 Third, the training needs to be hands-on and not just for the clinician but the entire team of healthcare professionals including the diagnostic and biomedical engineering team—till they get used to the handling of the product.

In the pharma code of conduct, there was a limited scope of providing these necessary hands-on training to the clinicians. Further, there was a limitation in providing samples for hands-on training. The definition of healthcare professionals also was limited to a clinician (doctor) only, which needed to be broadened for medical devices—as nurses, technicians, perfusionists, and bio-medical engineers all form an important part of the eco-system along with the team of clinicians 

Hence, it was essential to come up with a separate code of marketing practices.

Q. How has the present government been widening the circle of probity? 

A. While the draft UCMDPM does allow companies to provide training to the clinicians in suitable facilities, adequate guidelines are provided so that the training and other engagements with the healthcare professionals are carried out in a compliant way, which includes but is not limited to the type/location of facilities to be used, guidelines on the cost of food and travel, record keeping of the engagement. Further, adequate provisions of probity are maintained through a separate committee created under every industry association, to receive, report and do the necessary due diligence in case of receipt of a complaint on the violation. 

Q. Is there any difference in code from the global markets or any disadvantage?

A. We do not view any significant disadvantage related to the difference in code from global markets. Various codes of conduct across the countries are considered while creating UCMDMP. Even industry codes created by AdvaMed, EUCOMED, and APEMED are considered. The draft UCMDMP has included the best of the features. It depends on how we implement the code. Considering the diversified nature of the industry, it will require some handholding and training for the companies to adapt to the code. The industry is ready to partner with the Government of India for the implementation of the code.

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Health & Wellness


Keeping a regular practice of meditation can help enhance your mental well-being at work by improving attention, reducing anxiety, and fostering social connections.



Thirty-two-year-old Shruti Mishra had been expecting her Pune-based office to resume work from office early this year. But when the email popped in her inbox, she felt she wasn’t ready. After more than two years of working from the safety and comfort of her home, which meant more time with her six-year-old daughter and more time to look after her health and wellbeing the thought of going back to work made her anxious and nervous. She was suddenly worried about the morning rush hour, deadlines, dealing with toxic colleagues and how her daughter will adjust to her mom not being around all the time? She was worried about her mental well-being.

The mental well-being of employees has always been an area of concern for managers. Many corporations do offer wellness programs—almost 90 per cent of organisations have some employee wellbeing initiatives in place—but the effectiveness and levels of engagement prove to be significant challenges. Returning to physical offices can prove to be a challenge and affect the mental well-being of some employees. Luckily, help is at hand.


Adopting and embracing wellbeing practices such as meditation and mindfulness can be of immense help while navigating this transition and for overall mental wellbeing at the workplace. These are tools to establish greater balance, grounding, and focus on work, in addition to fostering more joy and fulfilment.

Meditation offers that much-needed restorative pause to an overworked mind and a restless heart. When we meditate, we practice concentration, listening, and relaxation. These qualities are vital to our health and happiness, yet increasingly compromised in the rush of day-to-day life. By maintaining a daily practice of meditation and mindfulness, we can enhance our well-being at both home and office. Here are some of the benefits of having a regular practice.

Improves attention: It is the most significant benefit for working professionals. Don’t we all end up scrolling our phones just when we have a tight deadline? Or struggle to be attentive during a long meeting? Science shows that introducing more mindfulness into our lives ultimately influences areas of the brain that are responsible for attention. The more we meditate, the more we strengthen our ability to focus.

Reduces anxiety and negativity: Your next appraisal, deadlines, and your child’s exams clashing with an office event, there are endless triggers for anxiety and negativity. Maintaining a regular mindfulness practise has been shown to decrease the tendency to have intrusive negative thoughts. And multiple studies have now established that regular practice of meditation can alleviate stress and reduce anxiety.

Stronger social connections: Employees with good social connections at work are seven times more likely to be focused on their assignments. Several studies have found a positive relationship between mindfulness and relationship quality.

Better sleep: Restful sleep is the key to being productive at your workplace. In general, meditation practice has been found to facilitate relaxation in the body and calm for the busy mind. It can help you fall asleep too. Meditation has been reported to enhance the levels of melatonin, the sleep hormone.


Meditation may initially appear overwhelming and confusing. Sitting still for 15 minutes may look as daunting as doing 50 reps of Surya Namaskar. But with practice, it gets easier.

First, you need to trust the process and focus on it instead of thinking of its outcomes. Don’t get affected by the onslaught of thoughts while you are meditating. Let them come and go, just observe your thoughts. It’s natural for you to start the practice with certain expectations of how you are supposed to feel but you gradually transition to a state where just being in that moment, in that state of stillness, becomes bigger than any expectations. This is when the practice starts to change you into a better version of yourself.


Once you get familiar with the process, you can meditate any time and literally anywhere. You could be waiting for your cab in the morning or during your lunch break. In addition, here are some simple mindfulness tips to enhance your mental well-being during the workday:

Set an intention: It could be “I will try to stay happy today” or “I will remain calm” or “I will be empathetic at work” … anything that will make you more calm, focused, and joyful.

Take regular breaks: After every two hours of work, take a breather. Have something to drink, walk around, look outside the window or just stretch your limbs. This will help you stay focused and productive.

Perk your senses: Listen to the sounds in the office, smell the scents and aromas around you for 30 seconds. Then open your eyes and focus on a picture on the wall. This will awaken your senses and help you focus better.

Mindful lunch: Take an hour-long break away from your work area. Eat mindfully, without looking at a screen or reading. Experience and relish the taste of your food. Post-lunch, relax for 15 minutes. This will reset you for work.

Release stress: If you start feeling stressed at any point, inhale deeply through your nose. Exhale through your mouth and while doing so imagine that you are exhaling the stress out of you. Repeat this exercise three to four times.

Express gratitude: At the end of the day when you log out, take a moment to reflect on the day. Make a note of what worked well and express gratitude for it. Also, acknowledge what didn’t work out and inspire yourself to try something different the next day.

It is estimated that one-third of your life is spent at work. Your professional life is very much an extension of your personal life and, therefore, you need to prioritise your mental wellbeing at work. Make the most of your time spent in the office and learn to keep a calm and peaceful attitude throughout each workday.

The writer is Global Head, Mental Health, and Wellbeing, RoundGlass, a global Wholistic Wellbeing company dedicated to empowering and enabling people on their well-being journey.

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Health & Wellness

7 Common Examples of Medical Negligenc



According to one survey, seven in ten Americans trust nurses and doctors with their health and wellbeing. However, cases of medical negligence remain prevalent.

Medical negligence is a breach of duty of care whereby a medical professional’s action or inaction has adverse consequences on a patient’s health, including injury, disability, or death. One statistical report showed that the economic burden arising from medical negligence is $US 19.5 billion.

The consequences of negligence include a medical malpractice suit against individual practitioners or the entire health institution. However, learning the medical negligence types below helps make a solid medical malpractice case.

Childbirth Injury

Childbirth injuries are physical damages to a mother or her child during prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postnatal and neonatal care. Such injuries can adversely affect the mother’s well-being and cause the newborn child to develop neonatal or congenital disabilities.

Cases whereby doctors genuinely have limited options to prevent injuries to either infant or mother exist. However, one statistic reports that 700-900 US women die of childbirth injuries annually, yet most of these injuries are preventable.

Common childbirth injuries to new mothers resulting from medical practitioner negligence include postpartum hemorrhage, uterine rupture, and fistula. On the other hand, a child with birth injury (neonatal birth trauma) may develop brain damage and breathing problems, leading to dire health conditions like cerebral palsy. Statistics show that seven in every 1000 children born in the US suffer birth injuries.

Proving that neglect caused childbirth injuries is challenging. However, you can approach a medical malpractice attorney with resources like child injury experts to help prove your claim.

Diagnostic Errors

Diagnostic errors occur when a doctor fails to diagnose a health condition, diagnose the disease in advanced stages, or gives an incorrect diagnosis. According to one report, diagnostic errors are the most damaging medical error type, causing permanent disabilities and 40000 to 80000 deaths annually.

Such stark statistics lie in the fact that diagnostic errors inhibit timely medical interventions causing the underlying health condition to spiral out of control. Diagnostic errors occur when the doctor’s oversight means they dismiss some symptoms and fail to order tests that could potentially lead to an early diagnosis. The errors also arise when the doctor misinterprets lab results and scan imaging or fails to refer a patient with a possible chronic diagnosis to a specialist.

Surgical Errors

Surgeries are innately risky procedures, with patients having no guarantee of waking up from the surgical table, even with simple, low-risk procedures like breast biopsies. However, one study on errors contributing to surgical complications established that human factor errors are leading contributors to such complications.

Such human errors include surgical technique errors, judgment errors, inattention to detail, and an incomplete understanding of the situation. The following incidences feature prominently among the reported surgical error incidences.

  • Anesthesia errors (too much or too little)
  • Performing surgery on the wrong patient or wrong body part
  • Leaving surgical paraphernalia inside a patient’s body
  • Using non-sterile instruments
  • Poor post-surgical recovery monitoring
  • Causing damage to nerves, tissues, and organs

Such errors lead to prolonged hospitalization, varying disability levels, and death in adverse cases.

Emergency Room (ER) Errors

As stated above, diagnosis errors are the most prevalent and dangerous medical errors. Most misdiagnosis errors occur in the hospital’s ER.

The ER is a hospital unit specializing in emergency treatments for walk-in treatments like accident victims. ER medical staff are typically busy and may fail to recognize underlying disease symptoms among patients lacking overt health symptoms.

Other ER oversight issues include failing to review patient history, early discharge for patients needing observation, and first responder negligence. Consequently, you can sue for allergies, negative drug interactions, and deaths resulting from ER neglect.

Medication Prescription Errors

Prescription errors can occur in the doctor’s office when the doctor writes the patient prescription medications for a health condition other than the patient’s current diagnosis. On the other hand, it may also occur when the hospital’s pharmacists fulfill the patient’s prescription with the wrong medications.

According to one statistical survey, the FDA receives over 100,000 reports of medication errors annually. Medication prescription errors can cause adverse allergic reactions or possible negative medical interactions resulting from the wrongly prescribed drugs interacting with other medications in the patient’s system.

Most prescription medications occur due to a doctor’s inattentiveness or failure to view a patient’s medical history record.

Informed Consent Errors

US laws declare informed consent is a legal right for US patients and an ethical obligation for medical practitioners. According to the law, the informed consent principle holds that a healthcare provider must provide adequate information on the risks associated with any medical procedure.

The principle allows patients to consciously consent to various medical procedures, except in emergencies whereby the patient cannot give consent. Moreover, coercion for consent is grounds for medical malpractice.

Hospital-Acquired Infections

Hospital-acquired infections are infections that patients contract post-admission into a hospital.  Such infections indicate an unsanitary hospital environment that qualifies as neglect. Hospital-acquired infections may also demonstrate improper sterilization of medical tools.


Health care is a fundamental human right and having compromised health after entrusting a medical practitioner with your health violates that right. Therefore, consult a medical malpractice lawyer if you suspect you or a loved one are victims of medical neglect.

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Health & Wellness

Signs Your Perfume Has Expired and It Is Time to Buy a New One



Do you love to have a collection of perfumes? Having a variety of fragrances can be a good thing and it means that you have a perfume for every occasion. When you are going out with the girls, you have a fun and energetic perfume. Then, when you are going on a day, you can enjoy feeling confident and attractive with an alluring one.

But, one thing you do have to be careful of is that your perfume does not expire. When a fragrance is opened, it can lose its scent over time. So, you have to ensure that you are going to use it. Have you had a perfume for a while and are not sure whether it has expired? Here are some signs you should look out for.

There are Light Base Notes

If you have had a perfume for a while and you know it contains light base notes, it could have expired. This is because light base notes are more fragile, which can mean that they do not last as long as heavier base notes. Thus, if your perfume is citrus or floral, this may apply to you.

Alternatively, if you have heavier base notes in your perfume, you may be able to keep it for longer. For instance, oriental scents are thought to have a long life. Look out for ingredients such as amber. For instance, Emporio Armani Diamonds is an Eau De Parfum that contains amber as a base note. You can view this fragrance here. This might have a longer life than other perfumes that have more volatile ingredients. So, the perfume you buy can affect when they expire too.

There is a Sour Scent

First of all, you are going to know if your perfume has expired if it does not smell like it used to. It might seem less fresh and you might struggle to smell the top notes that you did before when you use it. In addition, there is going to be a slightly sour scent to the perfume. This often happens because oxygen gets into the fragrance. In particular, the top notes can be sensitive to this oxidisation. 

So, spray the perfume onto a piece of paper and smell it. This is going to be a very helpful test to know if it has expired. If there is something strange about the perfume and you know it has been open for a while, it might be time to put it in the bin.

The perfume Has Changed Colour

Some bottles of perfume are transparent. In other words, you can see the liquid itself in the bottle. This can be a good thing and it is going to be useful when you are trying to see if the perfume is off. Indeed, the perfume can change colour and it may go darker than it was before. In addition, there might be a yellow tint to the liquid. These are signs that the perfume has oxidized and it is not going to be at its best. The safest thing you can do is throw away the perfume.

When you are shopping for perfume, there may be some that are going to last longer than others. According to experts, those with base notes such as vanilla may have a less volatile formula. In particular, it could mean that the perfume will not oxidise quickly. 

It has Been Open Longer than the PAO Number

If you still have the original box or packaging of the perfume, this can indicate whether it has expired. In particular, look out for a period after opening or PAO number. This demonstrates how long you can have this product open before it starts to expire. Often, this is found on a lot of cosmetic product packaging. 

If you cannot find this number or you do not have the original packaging, you do not have to worry. Think about when you opened the perfume. Was it more than 18 months ago? This is when you should start to test the perfume and see if it is still the same quality as when you bought it.

Ask One of Your Friends

The truth is, if you are used to a fragrance, you might not know if it smells off. You can become used to it over time. But, perhaps your friend is going to be able to help you out. They can be impartial if they do not own the scent and they are going to be able to tell you if something does not smell right. So, ask one of your friends to help you. You can spray the perfume onto a piece of paper, as well as letting them see the bottom and liquid.

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