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How coronavirus strikes a sanitary pad crisis in India

Menstruating girls and women are restricted from offering prayers and touching holy books. The underlying basis for this myth is also the cultural beliefs of impurity associated with menstruation. It is further believed that menstruating women are unhygienic and unclean and hence the food they prepare or handle can get contaminated.

Anushka

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This article shall talk about the discrimination against menstruating women is widespread in India, where periods have long been a taboo and considered impure. According to one study, only 36% of India’s 355 million menstruating females use sanitary napkins , while the rest use old rags, husk, ash, leaves, mud and soil and such other life-threatening materials to manage their flow.A woman’s menstrual health is crucial to her well-being and also to the well-being of her family and community. But too often — especially in the developing world — mindsets, customs and institutional biases prevent women from getting the menstrual health care they need. Menstrual hygiene continues to be amongst the most challenging development issues today. Menstruation is associated with the onset of puberty in girls and many a times, it brings with it rules, restrictions, isolation and changed expectations from the girls by the society. This changed attitude towards girls such as restrictions on their self expressions, schooling, mobility and freedom has far reaching consequences on the mindset of women. Menstruation is still considered a taboo in the Indian society. Even today, the cultural and social influences on people create a major hurdle in ensuring that the adolescent girls are given proper knowledge on menstrual hygiene. Mothers are also reluctant to talk about this topic with their daughters and many of them lack scientific knowledge on puberty. Culturally in many parts of India, menstruation is still considered to be dirty and impure. The origin of this myth dates back to the Vedic times and is often been linked to Indra’s slaying of Vritras. For, it has been declared in the Veda that guilt, of killing a brahmana-murder, appears every month as menstrual flow as women had taken upon themselves a part of Indra’s guilt. Further, in the Hindu faith, women are prohibited from participating in normal life while menstruating. She must be “purified” before she is allowed to return to her family and day to day chores of her life. However, scientifically it is known that the actual cause of menstruation is ovulation followed by missed chance of pregnancy that results in bleeding from the endometrial vessels and is followed by preparation of the next cycle. Therefore, there seems no reason for this notion to persist that menstruating women are “impure.” Many girls and women are subject to restrictions in their daily lives simply because they are menstruating. Not entering the “puja” room is the major restriction among urban girls whereas, not entering the kitchen is the main restriction among the rural girls during menstruation. Menstruating girls and women are also restricted from offering prayers and touching holy books.The underlying basis for this myth is also the cultural beliefs of impurity associated with menstruation. It is further believed that menstruating women are unhygienic and unclean and hence the food they prepare or handle can get contaminated. According to study by Kumar and Srivastava in 2011, participating women also reported that during menstruation the body emits some specific smell or ray, which turns preserved food bad. And, therefore, they are not allowed to touch sour foods like pickles. However, as long as general hygiene measures are taken into account, no scientific test has shown menstruation as the reason for spoilage of any food in making. Cultural norms and religious taboos on menstruation are often compounded by traditional associations with evil spirits, shame and embarrassment surrounding sexual reproduction. In some cultures, women bury their cloths used during menstruation to prevent them being used by evil spirits. Interestingly, in Asia including India, such beliefs are still practiced. However, there seems to be no logical or scientific explanation for this.In some parts of India, some strict dietary restrictions are also followed during menstruation such as sour food like curd, tamarind, and pickles are usually avoided by menstruating girls. It is believed that such foods will disturb or stop the menstrual flow. As far as the exercise is concerned, many studies in India and elsewhere have revealed that many adolescent girls believe that doing exercise/physical activity during menses aggravate the dysmenorrhea while in real exercise can help relieve the menstruating women with symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea and relieve bloating. Exercise also causes a release of serotonin, making one feel much happier. In some parts of India, perceptions of Hinduism center on notions of purity and pollution. Bodily excretions are believed to be polluting, as are the bodies when producing them. All women, regardless of their social caste, incur pollution through the bodily processes of menstruation and childbirth. Water is considered to be the most common medium of purification. The protection of water sources from such pollution, which is the physical manifestation of Hindu deities, is, therefore, a key concern. This highlights the possible reason why menstruating women are not allowed to take a bath especially for first few days of their menstrual period. It is believed that if a girl or women touches a cow while she is on her period, that the cow will become infertile – leading girls to associate their own bodies with curse and impurity. The main reasons for this taboo still being relevant in the Indian society are high rate of illiteracy especially in girls, poverty and lack of awareness about menstrual health and hygiene. Only less than 18 per cent of Indian women use sanitary pads. The latest National Family and Health Survey found that 58 per cent of young Indian women (15-24 years) use a hygienic method of protection (mostly sanitary pads), a significant increase from the 12 per cent using pads in 2010. The difficulty of accessing sanitary pads is another major issue. India scrapped a 12% tax on sanitary products in 2018 after months of campaigning by activists.Campaigners had argued that menstrual hygiene products were not a luxury and periods were not a choice that a woman could simply opt out of.However, tax exemption is only a small step towards a much longer journey of making menstrual health and hygiene an accessible reality for every woman in the country. This is, no doubt, a consequence of greater attention to menstrual hygiene management over the past few years in India. This not only prevails in the Indian society but is a global issue. From an early age, girls learn to live with the pain and fear and seldom do we see a girl seek help when in physical or mental discomfort due to periods. But with a surge in the use of social media in recent years, women have begun sharing their stories about menstruation too.Yet this freedom is often questioned and those sharing their stories are threatened with bans, while trolls who indulge in moral policing and shaming women go scot-free.Perhaps the more critical issue is that menstrual health experts say the current coronavirus crisis has worsened matters further in India. The country is under a strict lockdown which has severely impacted production and supplies of menstrual hygiene products. Access to menstrual hygiene products for Indian women, especially those in rural areas, has been severely impacted due to the coronavirus pandemic and closure of educational institutions and community organisations has further compounded the problem, a study has found.The pandemic has also disrupted the production of menstrual hygiene products, with many small and medium scale manufacturing units facing a shortage of labour, raw material and working capital, it said.

KEY CHALLENGES RELATED TO MENSTRUAL HYGIENE

1. Continuing taboos and restrictions related to menstruation.

2. Limited access to sanitary pads.

3. Limited access to social support.

4. Restricted access to sanitation facilities.

5. Anxiety and stress over how to manage menstruation.

6. Disrupted manufacturing of menstrual hygiene products.

7. Broken supply chains for menstrual hygiene products.

The result of the above factors found by one of the surveys was that most girls and women began to switch to cloth pads.

How do you maintain Period Hygiene? The Problem with Using Cloth Pads

How do you maintain period hygiene when you have no safe access to sanitary pads or sanitation facilities? A relevant area of concern.

A common problem linked to the use of cloth pads is that those who use it do not have adequate information on how to maintain the cloth they are using so that they are not infected later. In fact, using cloth pads without knowing how to maintain it poses danger to a woman’s health and they risk infections of a grave nature. In relief camps and shelters where food and water are of primary concern, and in quarantine and isolation facilities where testing kits and essential medicines are the necessity, menstrual products for women are not considered an essential item.

Female migrants on the road and women in quarantine or isolation facilities may experience discrimination and stigma more acutely owing to their menses.  Women and girls may use their menstrual products for longer than recommended, or turn to unhygienic alternatives such as old cloth or rags.  Irrespective of what is used, changing menstrual products regularly, washing reusable cloth pads, cleaning the body, and disposing of used materials, is now more challenging than usual. In slums, where many are dependent on community toilets, social distancing measures and mobility restrictions makes it difficult for girls and women to use toilets as frequently as they need to during their period. In rural areas, procuring additional water for washing related needs during menstruation may be a barrier. Privacy to change materials frequently and to discard them is impinged upon for urban and rural residents alike. For women migrants, managing periods on the long and tough road home without access to any type of amenity is an unimaginable difficulty. Limited availability of menstrual hygiene products and inability to maintain hygiene can affect the health of menstruators adversely. Strikingly, poor and affluent women alike, express anxiety over limited supplies for themselves and female family members.

Menstrual materials are worn for longer than they should be, simply to extend availability of limited stock to deal with restricted mobility, increasing the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTI). Reusable cloth pads, while a good alternative, may not be washed and dried thoroughly due to paucity of water and privacy, posing additional risks for infections.Women do not seek required healthcare for RTIs even under normal circumstances. With non-essential health services curtailed and frontline health workers focused on the pandemic response activities, RTI symptoms resulting from poor menstrual hygiene are likely to go unaddressed. Hence, action for ensuring access to safe menstrual products and information on menstrual hygiene are critical.

To deal with this crisis and to ease the problem of girls and women specially in the rural areas, I started an NGO called NAARI which aims to deal with stigmas related to menstruation and also distributes sanitary napkins to women. This journey started in the month of September and we have now reached almost 3000 women across two states, namely Jharkhand and West Bengal. We also conduct various sensitization programs amongst girls and women and the objective of this holistic sensitisation programme is accomplished through integrated awareness, motivation and meditation programmes. It provides them with know-how on how to handle menstruation, improve knowledge of personal hygiene and boost confidence by answering unanswered questions through interactive and engaging training methods.

We have taken this step because we were aware that this it is an important issue among underprivileged families specially during this pandemic and we aim to reach out to more number of women to provide them with sanitary napkins regularly.

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Policy & Politics

A lurking air pollution emergency amidst farmers’ agitation

It is surprising that dispensing with the fine on stubble burning is turning negotiable for the government and the farmers at the cost of the health of millions of people in northern India who choke whenever the farm fires are lit.

Sudhir Mishra

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By imposing fines that were as high as Rs 2000 for not wearing masks, the Government of the NCT of Delhi demonstrated that when words do not work, restrictions become necessary. One cannot help but wonder where are these restrictions when it comes to protecting the air in and around Delhi.

The Central Government promulgated new farm laws/ ordinances in India during 2020 to protect the interests of farmers and also, to save the environment. Over the last few months Indian farmers have put up a strong resistance to the farm laws introduced by the Central Government in more ways than one. Since the highlight of their protest is their non-negotiable demand to repeal the three farm laws and a legal guarantee of MSP, some other demands of the farmers have gone unnoticed by the national media and especially the people of Delhi. 

A crucial part of their demand, apart from rolling back the three farm laws has been dispensing with the fine imposed on stubble burning. It is surprising that such a discussion on dispensing with the fine on stubble burning is turning negotiable for the Government and the farmers at the cost of the health of millions of people in northern India who choke whenever the farm fires are lit. The air pollution in Delhi has been the focus of the entire world for the last one decade with Delhi topping the list of the most polluted cities around the world. Needless to say, little has been done to address the issue effectively. On the contrary, conflicting stands have been taken by governments for the ‘state’ of Delhi.

Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal for example, openly supports the agitation against the farm laws, while he had previously been very critical of the farmers in Punjab and Haryana for stubble burning. All his Press campaigns on the issue of air pollution in Delhi during 2019 had centred squarely on stubble burning, which he had blamed for the foul air in Delhi. Sadly, not even once did the Delhi Government suggested the stakeholders during the farmers’ crisis that stubble burning needs to be regulated and discouraged. In fact, during the ongoing farm agitation, stubble burning increased many folds and the capital city choked yet again, in the absence of any state protection whatsoever.

The Delhi Government has time and again identified stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana as the main contributor to air pollution in Delhi. The Central Government recently passed the Commission for Air Quality Management for NCR Ordinance, 2020 to tackle this issue. Through this ordinance, stubble burning was to be penalised which was hopefully an effective step towards curbing the menace. However, the farm protests may even compel the Central Government to concede to the demand to exclude the penalty clause for stubble burning from the laws. In this sticky situation of blame-game, concessions and vested interests, the Delhi’s air emergency is once again pushed to the backburner. 

Personally, my fight for clean air in Delhi is on since 2015 before the Hon’ble High Court of Delhi in the matter titled as ‘Sudhir Mishra vs Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ors.’ in W.P. (C) 2115/2015 tagged with a suo-moto matter of the High Court. Unfortunately, I suffer serious demotivation when I see professed global climate change crusader activists like Greta Thunberg supporting farm laws and not the right of the children of Delhi to breath in clean air. At the peak of the coronavirus pandemic, I had again moved to the High Court of Delhi to somehow control air pollution in Delhi, which was being adversely affected by stubble burning. However, the court was advised by the Central Government that it would soon bring a law to penalise stubble burning. And now here we are, back to square one, with the likelihood of the law or ordinance that could have penalised farmers for stubble burning being sacrificed, while climate change activists protest in favour of the farmers and their historical ways. In fact, we also know the deplorable condition of ground water and that it›s brazen extraction for water intensive farming in Punjab and Haryana is detrimental to our hopeful climate goals. 

In October, 2020, the Supreme Court of India had indicated that it would study the stubble burning ordinance and pass orders, if necessary. However, in spite of the absence of any opinion of the Supreme Court on the said ordinance, the Government may concede to the demand of farmers and agree to remove the provision for imposing a fine on stubble burning and hence, wreak havoc with the health of millions of people. Moreover, Nobel Prize winners and other luminaries in the public eye internationally have come out in support of the farmers, turning a blind eye simultaneously to the consequences of stubble burning affecting the air pollution and smog in the national capital of Delhi. While climate change activists share toolkits and enhance international camaraderie around the laws, they fail to raise a climate change question supporting clean air for Delhi. 

Arguments have also been made by many distinguished environmentalists that the farmers’ protests for repealing the three farm laws are a smokescreen to arm-twist the Government into allowing the other demands made by the farmers, and here we see that the environmental concerns have gone for a toss in this tug-of-war between the farmers and the Government. To top it, the opposition is fighting tooth and nail to maybe gain political advantage, which is a point of concern for actual climate change warriors. The massive vote bank in areas of Punjab and Haryana have probably motivated political parties to single-handedly parrot the farmers at the cost of middle-class taxpayers of the National Capital of Delhi, who inhale smoke-filled foul air. 

In the entire maze of confusing discussions over the new farm laws controversy, somewhere the taxpaying middleclass of the capital city of Delhi have been the most neglected. Not only are the state borders closed and movements of Delhi residents restricted, but their lungs too are choking on account of the air quality in Delhi. The entire city is in a hostage situation and we are going to see sustained stubble burning in future as well, as farmers continue to be instigated to persist with their stir.  What is even more uninspiring is that while Delhi bears the brunt of this farm law crisis, there is no encouraging talk or message for Delhi citizens to build their faith in improved air quality in Delhi. Instead, people governing them have abandoned their responsibility and are looking the other way for a considerable period of time now. Global Climate Change Activists like Greta Thunberg’s support towards the farmers agitation against the farm laws, ostensibly for the climate has raised many eyebrows. If one considers the ground issues concerning environment, then Thunberg may not be an inspiration to many young children, especially of Delhi.

While it is desirable that the farmers concerns are resolved soon, but does it have to be at the cost of health of so many owing to the Air Emergency?

The author is Founder and Managing Partner, Trust Legal, Door Tenant at  No5 Barristers’ Chambers, United Kingdom and Climate Change Lawyer. 

In October 2020, the Supreme Court had indicated that it would study the stubble burning Ordinance and pass orders, if necessary. However, in spite of the absence of any opinion of the Supreme Court on the said Ordinance, the government may concede to the demand of farmers and agree to remove the provision for imposing a fine on stubble burning and hence, wreak havoc with the health of millions of people. Moreover, Nobel Prize winners and other luminaries in the public eye internationally have come out in support of the farmers, turning a blind eye simultaneously to the consequences of stubble burning affecting the air pollution and smog in the national capital of Delhi.

Global climate change activists like Greta Thunberg’s support towards the farmers’ agitation against the new farm laws, ostensibly for the climate, has raised many eyebrows. If one considers the ground issues concerning environment, then Thunberg may not be an inspiration to many young children, especially of Delhi. 

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Policy & Politics

Entire rail network to be fully electrified by December 2023, says Piyush Goyal

Tarun Nangia

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Piyush Goyal, Union Minister for Railways, Commerce & Industry and Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Govt of India today said that the government is working to ensure that the entire rail network will be fully electrified by December 2023 and the entire rail network will run on renewable energy by 2030. Addressing the virtual session ‘Investment Opportunities in Andhra Pradesh’, during the‘Maritime India Summit 2021’, organized by the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways, jointly with FICCI, Goyal said that India has had a glorious maritime history and we are on the path to build an even greater maritime future. “In the last 6 years, the capacity of our major ports has almost doubled. We have developed smart cities and industrial parks and integrated ports with the coastal economic zones. Integration of Road, Rail & Waterways can truly make India ‘One Nation, One Market, One Supply’,” he added. Mr Goyal further said that we need to reduce our logistics cost so that the international and domestic freight costs will reduce from 13-14% cost of goods to a more acceptable international benchmark of 8%. “Bringing down the logistics cost is the need of the hour today. India cannot be competitive as long as our logistics cost remains so high. We are working on multi-modal logistics solutions to bring down the cost of transportation & increase supply chain efficiency. It’s time that we plan our port sector in such a manner that we can have modern and efficient ports, the turnaround time of ships can be brought down significantly. A more competitive spirit will help to keep the cost in freight and at port low,” he said. Maritime India summit 2021, he said will be the beginning of our victory against high freight costs, our victory to be an international player in maritime sector, our victory in ensuring jobs. “Under PM’s leadership, the country has had a very rapid V-shaped recovery. This Maritime India Summit 2021 will be the beginning of our victory to be an international player in the sector,” he added. Highlighting the potential in Andhra Pradesh, Goyal said that the government is working closely with the Govt of Andhra Pradesh to further develop road, rail and port infrastructure and promote dedicated freight corridor as both for encouraging economic activities and bring manufacturing activity & promote industrial parks in the State. “I would urge industry captains to let us build industry at sea. We on our part will ensure ease of doing business. We will work in partnership with States for enhancing ease of doing business at state and local level. He further stated that the maritime sector is a very critical sector for Atmanirbhar Bharat. We are working to turn our coastal region into a role model for ease of living and ease of doing business. He added that the government is working on 3 mantras for the infrastructure sector in the country – Upgrade, Create, Dedicate. “If we re-invent with technology driven solutions like robotics, automation, artificial intelligence, big data analytics, our sector is SAFE- Sustainable, Agile, Futuristic, Efficient. I appeal to all stakeholders to utilize this opportunity to transform from being ‘service provider’ to ‘knowledge provider’,”Mr Goyal asserted. Mr R Karikal Valaven, Special Chief Secretary Industries, Investment & Commerce, Govt of Andhra Pradesh said that the state of Andhra Pradesh is a natural choice for any investor to come and invest because of a very vibrant coastline. He further said that it is the endeavour of the state government to reduce the cost of doing business. “The state has a very good network of roads and railways and now with port infrastructure, the maritime economy is going to thrive. We are developing multimodal logistics parks to facilitate transportation,” he added. Highlighting the State’s industrial policy, YSR AP1,Mr Valaven, said that it is a one stop shop for investors providing all solutions, handholding, facilitation, market support and all support required for doing business. He further stated that the state government is also planning to promote maritime tourism. “Tourism is an area of our interest. All sea ports and fishing harbors will be connected through cruise tourism. We are aiming at inclusive growth for the state,” added Mr Valaven. MrK. Rama Mohana Rao, Chairman, Visakhapatnam Port Trust MrNP Ramakrishna Reddy, CEO, AP Maritime Board;Lt Cdr Ravindra Reddy, Dy. CEO, AP Maritime Board and Mr Durgesh Dubey, Deputy Chairman, Visakhapatnam Port Trust also shared their perspective during the session.

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Policy & Politics

Despite umpteen ceasefire agreements, Pakistan continues to provoke us

Another chance for Pakistan to mend fences with India.

Vijay Darda

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This is not the first time that India and Pakistan have signed a ceasefire agreement on their borders to give peace a chance. After the fierce Kargil War of 1999, there was peace on the border for sometime, but it was short-lived. By 2003, when the situation went from bad to worse, a ceasefire agreement was reached between the two countries. Now, India and Pakistan’s Director Generals of Military Operations have agreed to fully implement the ceasefire understanding of 2003 in letter and spirit and to ensure that the ceasefire agreement will not be violated by both the sides and peace will be restored along the border from Rajasthan to Kashmir! Will it really happen?

The world rests on hope and it reinforces trust. Therefore, the supporters of peace should hope for peace and efforts should be continued for achieving this objective. However, the 2003 ceasefire agreement also did not last long and in 2018 a similar agreement had to be reached once again. Interestingly, within the next three years, a ceasefire agreement has had to be signed again. The question is, once the agreement is reached why is it violated? Blame lies at the door of Pakistan. Our army does not fire needlessly. Our army responds when Pakistani army fires bullets and lobs mortars at innocent villagers or its snipers fire at our jawans.

This is indeed an act of noble-mindedness on the part of India that it has agreed for the latest ceasefire with its recalcitrant neighbour. Pakistan always tries to spoil the relationship. When India responds, it starts propaganda about the Kashmir issue around the world. Right now that its condition is bad, it wants to get some relief at the border because our army has kept a tight vigil over the region. Seeing the retreat of the Chinese army, the Pakistani establishment is feeling demoralised. Since India has always been in favour of peace, it is giving one more chance to Pakistan to mend its ways.

I also want to mention that the people of Pakistan also want good relations with India. The problem is their army. Enmity with India is its staple diet. Given that relations between India and Pakistan have reached such a nadir, the question in everyone’s mind is what drove Pakistan to opt for this ceasefire agreement?

In a significant shift of tone, Pakistan Army chief General Qamar Javed Bajwa seemed to have softened his approach towards India on February 2 when he announced that, “The time has come to extend a hand of peace and friendship in all directions.”

Consequent upon this statement, the firings from across the border have started to decrease. India replied in the affirmative to this gesture. Even Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan’s aircraft on the way to Sri Lanka was allowed to pass through the Indian airspace, whereas Pakistan’s attitude has always been negative. Even our Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s aircraft was not allowed to pass through Pakistani airspace. India would have given a befitting reply but it was not done because India wants to improve relations with its neighbouring country.

An effort to restore peace was also made by the then Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee but Pakistan responded with the Kargil War. By the way, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has always been in favour of the fact that relations with Pakistan should be normal. After the 2008 Mumbai bomb blasts, all relations were frozen but in 2015, Narendra Modi broke the ice by paying a surprise visit to Pakistan and meeting the then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif at his residence. Perhaps Nawaz Sharif also wanted to normalise relations, but a few days later there was a terrorist attack on the Pathankot air base. Pakistani terrorists were involved in it, which the army there had trained and radicalised them for this terror attack. When Imran Khan became the Prime Minister, he also tried to thaw the frozen relationship, but the army took him under its wings. Pakistan keeps sending consignments of arms and ammunition for terrorists in the Kashmir Valley. It should be kept in mind that those who play the game of blood are the enemies of democracy and the misfortune is that many invisible hands are always active to aid and abet those who do so.

Whatever may be the reason for the ceasefire agreement, it cannot be denied that peace on the border is very vital for both the countries. If the daily skirmishes on the borders cease and the relationship between the two nations becomes normal, then peace and harmony will prevail which will be beneficial for both of them. If there is peace and mutual understanding, it will surely be good for the people on both the sides. Both the countries are spending crores of rupees on war preparations. The amount of expenditure incurred by Pakistan is not known, but India spends about Rs 7 crores every day to maintain its troops on the peaks of Siachen Glacier. Pakistan is on the lower peaks there, so it may be spending less but that amount will also run into crores.

Apart from this, huge expenditure is also incurred in guarding the borderline of about 2900 km. Just think how good it will be if this money is spent on basic needs like health services and education for the common people! If that country gives up the path of terrorism, it will stand to gain immensely. We are a strong country, we are eliminating terrorists and we will destroy them root and branch. Pakistan should not even try to dream of snatching Kashmir. It has got an opportunity now to mend its ways and improve relations with India. The ball is in Pakistan’s court now.

The author is the chairman, Editorial Board of Lokmat Media and former member of Rajya Sabha.

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Policy & Politics

India’s merchandise trade: Preliminary data, February 2021

The country’s merchandise imports in February 2021were $40.55 billion, as compared to $37.90 billion in February 2020, an increase of 6.98%.

Tarun Nangia

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India’s merchandise exports in February 2021 were USD 27.67 billion as compared to USD 27.74 billion in February 2020, a decrease of 0.25%. Exports during April-February 2020-21 were USD 255.92 billion, as compared to USD 291.87 billion during the same period of last year, exhibiting a negative growth of 12.32%.

 India’s merchandise imports in February 2021were USD 40.55 billion, as compared to USD 37.90 billion in February 2020, an increase of 6.98%. Merchandise imports during April-February 2020-21 were USD 340.88 billion, as compared to USD 443.24 billion during the same period of last year, exhibiting a negative growth of 23.09%.

India is thus a net importer in February 2021, with a trade deficit of USD 12.88 billion, as compared to trade deficit of USD 10.16 billion in February 2020, improvement by 26.74%.

In February 2021, the value of non-petroleum exports was USD 25.16 billion, registering a positive growth of 3.55% over February 2020. The value of non-petroleum and non-gems and jewellery exports in February 2021 was USD 22.48 billion as compared to USD 21.28 billion in February 2020, registering a positivegrowth of 5.65%. The cumulative value of non-petroleum and non-gems and jewellery exports in April-February2020-21 was USD 211.25 billion, as compared to USD 219.22 billion for the corresponding period in 2019-20, exhibiting a decrease of 3.63%.

In February 2021, Oil imports were USD 8.99 billion, as compared to USD 10.78 billion in February 2020, a decline by 16.63%. Oil imports in April-February2020-21 were USD 72.08 billion, as compared to USD 120.50 billion, showing a decline of 40.18%. 

Non-oil imports in February 2021 were estimated at USD 31.56 billion, as compared to USD 27.12 billion in February 2020, showing an increase of 16.37%. Non-oil imports in April-February2020-21 were USD 268.78 billion, as compared to USD 322.74billion, registering a decline of 16.73% during the same period of the last year.

Non-oil, non-GJ (gold, silver &Precious metals) imports were USD 23.85 billion in February 2021, recording a positive growth of 7.40%, as compared to non-oil and non-GJ imports of USD 22.21 billion in February 2020. Non-oil and non-GJ imports were USD 225.49 billion in April-February 2020-21, recording a negative growth of 17.11%, as compared to non-oil and non-GJ imports of USD 272.05 billion in April-February 2019-20.

Major commodities of export which have recorded positive growth during February 2021 vis-à-vis February 2020 are: Other cereals (542.06.62%), Oil meals  (244.12%), Iron ore (167.79%), Jute mfg. Including floor covering (45.4%),Rice (30.1%), Cereal preparations and miscellaneous processed item (26.68%), Meat, dairy and poultry products (26.43%),Carpet  (19.4%), Spices  (18.46%), Drugs and pharmaceuticals (14.58%), Handicrafts excl. Hand-made carpet (13.14%), Ceramic products and glassware (10.8%), Cotton yarn/fabrics/made-ups, handloom products etc. (9.34%), Tobacco (7.69%), Plastic and linoleum  (3.03%), Mica, coal and other ores, minerals including process (2.33%), and Organic and Inorganic Chemicals (1.16%).

Major commodities of export which have recorded negative growth during February 2021 vis-à-vis February 2020 are Petroleum products  (-27.13%), Oil Seeds (-25.45%), Leather and leather manufactures (-21.62%), Cashew (-18.6%), Gems and Jewellery (-11.18%), RMG of All Textiles (-8.5%), Electronic Goods (-5.8%), Fruits and vegetables (-4.01%), Man-made yarn/fabrics/made-ups etc. (4.0%), Engineering goods  (-2.56%), Tea (-2.49%),Coffee  (-0.73%), and Marine products  (-0.25%).

 Major commodity groups of import showing positive growth in February 2021 over the corresponding month of last year are: Sulphur & Unroasted Iron Pyrites (235.96%), Gold (123.95%), Dyeing/tanning/colouring materials (46.38%), Chemical material & products (45.51%), Electronic goods (37.77%), Organic & Inorganic Chemicals (37.61%), Metaliferrous ores & other minerals (29.52%), Artificial resins, plastic materials, etc. (25.07%), Iron & Steel (23.41%), Textile yarn Fabric, made-up articles (21.43%), Wood &  Wood products (18.56%), Medcnl. & Pharmaceutical products (15.38%), %), and Non-ferrous metals (12.39%).

Major commodity groups of import showing negative growth in February 2021 over the corresponding month of last year are: Silver (-91.55%), Newsprint (-80.76%), Fertilisers, Crude & manufactured (-46.01%), Coal, Coke & Briquettes, etc. (-28.09%), Leather & leather products (-26.75%), Transport equipment (-23.0%), Petroleum, Crude & products (-16.63%), Project Goods (-12.56%), Pulses (-11.6%), Machine tools (-6.35%), Cotton Raw & Waste (-5.08%), Machinery, electrical & non-electrical (-4.85%), Professional instrument, Optical goods, etc. (-3.17%), Pulp and Waste paper (-2.8%), Pearls, precious & Semi-precious stones (-1.42%),Fruits & vegetables (-0.88%), and Vegetable Oil (-0.56%).

• India’s merchandise exports in February 2021 was $27.67 billion as compared to $27.74 billion in February 2020, a decrease of 0.25%.

• India’s merchandise imports in February 2021 were $40.55 billion as compared to $37.90 billion in February 2020, an increase of 6.98%.

• India is thus a net importer in February 2021 with a trade deficit of $12.88 billion as compared to trade deficit of $10.16 billion in February 2020, increase of 25.84%.

• Value of non-petroleum and non-gems and jewellery exports in February 2021 was $22.48 billion as compared to $21.28 billion in February 2020, a positive growth of 5.65%.

•  Non-oil, non-GJ (gold, silver & Precious metals) imports were $23.85 billion in February 2021 as compared to non-oil and non-GJ imports of $22.21 billion in February 2020, a positive growth of 7.40%.

•  Top 5 commodity groups of export which recorded positive growth during February 2021 vis-à-vis February 2020 are: Other Cereals (542.06%), Oil meals (244.12%), Iron Ore (167.79%), Jute manufacturing including floor covering (45.40%), and Rice (30.10%).

•  Top 5 commodity groups of import showing a fall in February 2021vis-à-vis February 2020 are: Silver (-91.55%), Newsprint (-80.76%), Fertilisers, Crude & manufactured (-46.01), Coal, Coke & Briquettes, etc. (-28.09%), and Leather & leather products (-26.75).

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Policy & Politics

Rising global demand for copper, zinc, other non-ferrous metals helps engineering exports: EEPC India

Tarun Nangia

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A sharp rise in global demand for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium and zinc along with their products , has greatly helped the Indian engineering exports brave through the Covid-19 pandemic hit world trade, an EEPC India analysis has shown.

A near 16 per cent increase in overall engineering exports during January,2021 over the same month last year was influenced by a sharp rise of 66.66 per cent in shipments of copper/products to USD 138.50 million from USD 83.10 million. Likewise, zinc and products witnessed a rise of 39 per cent in shipments to USD 72.17 million from USD 52 million. Exports of aluminium and products went up by 21 per cent to USD 512 million from 423 million for the month, on annualised basis.

‘’The non -ferrous metals are in great demand in the international market thanks to their usage in electric vehicles and their batteries as the world moves towards cleaner energy, “ EEPC India Chairman Mr Mahesh Desai said.

Malaysia,South Korea,China, the US and Singapore are the top destinations for export of non-ferrous metals from India.

Iron and steel, the largest contributor to the country’s engineering exports, too saw an impressive increase of 17.47 per cent in shipments during the month under review on Y on Y basis. These shipments went up to USD 847 million from USD 721 million for the month.

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Policy & Politics

INDIA’S WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT MARKET LIKELY TO REACH $4.3 BILLION BY 2025: AMITABH KANT

Tarun Nangia

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Amitabh Kant, CEO, NITI Aayog on Monday said that India’s wastewater treatment plants market stood at $2.4 billion in 2019 and is projected to reach $4.3 billion by 2025 owing to increasing demand for municipal water as well as sewage water treatment plants across the country. “There will be a huge gap of investments in this market and the private sector can fill this gap in terms of technology selection, fund rotation and implementation,” he added.

Kant said that climate change along with rapid population and economic growth is resulting in an increased demand for water and food, potentially leading to over stressing not only for our present resources but also jeopardizing the resources for future generations. “Therefore, a move towards a circular economy is critical for ensuring the economic and social stability of not only four economy but for the world economy as a whole,” he added while addressing the valedictory session ‘6th Edition of India Industry Water Conclave & 8th Edition of FICCI Water Awards’,

Kant said that to encourage circular economy, there is a need to develop an enabling framework that uses smart regulations, market-based instruments, research and innovation, incentives, information exchange for voluntary approaches. “To implement the circular economy and achieve sustainable industrial renaissance we should rely on proactive businesses and consumers with a special focus on small and medium sized enterprises implementing circular economy solutions,” he added.

Kant said that in circular economy innovations, our goals should be to design ways through the value chain rather than relying on the solutions at the end of the product life. This, he said can be achieved by reducing the quantity of water required to deliver services, reducing the use of energy in production, creating a market for secondary raw materials, incentivising and supporting waste reduction and high-quality separation by consumers along with facilitating the clustering of activities to prevent by-products from becoming waste. “Exploring and accessing alternate water sources is highly required,” he added.

Kant further stated that there is a need for rationalization in freshwater allocation for drinking in urban and rural areas with due proportion to industry. “Efficient use of water in agriculture should also be encouraged by adopting micro irrigation methods. All these uses should be interdependent for recycling and reuse of wastewater,” he noted.

To achieve the SDG 6.3 targets significant investments will be required in new infrastructure, grey and green and locally appropriate combinations along with appropriate technologies to increase the treatment in use of water. Inadequate sanitation resulting in poor hygienic practice leads to huge economic and social losses for the country, he said.

Collection, treatment, and reuse of municipal wastewater provides an opportunity for not only environmental rehabilitation but also meeting the increasing water needs of different economic sectors, added Mr Kant.

Rajendra Singh, Water Man of India said that for the country to become water sufficient nation, we have to ensure to use retreat, recycle and reuse the C-class water category. We must focus on using the B-class water for agriculture and A-class which comprises of fresh water should be kept separated from other classes of water. He also stated that in agriculture we must focus on reducing the use of water through new technology and skill development. “We need to link the crop pattern with rain pattern to ensure efficiency,” he added.

Rajiv Ranjan Mishra, DG, National Mission for Clean Ganga, Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti said that we are trying to develop a national framework for reuse of treated wastewater, and we are also working on developing national sludge management framework. “The government is not only developing policy but also supporting programs and we want to bring more private sector under these programs. Partnership is the key and does not only include public private partnership, but it should be public, private and people at large,” he added.

Naina Lal Kidwai, Chair, FICCI Water Mission and Past President, FICCI said that many state policies have come up for recycle and reuse of water, however a comprehensive policy which integrates all policies which exists in various ministries should be brought out which focusses on resource recovery model and not just on recycle and reuse of water. “There is also a need to develop a central water regulatory authority to cater these water issues,” she added.

Kidwai stated that Champions should be present in every city from both the private and public sector to create awareness related to water issues along with mobilization of community in addressing them is the need of the hour. She also noted that the potential of wastewater management in India is huge and this is an area for the industry to explore. “Water sector, if, made investor friendly by equitable sharing of risks between the investor, technology provider and Government, can bring in more private sectors investments in water projects,” she said.

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