When Narendra Modi was the CM of Gujarat, he was viewed not only as a visionary but, more importantly, a great implementer. If it had not been for his vision, he could not have undertaken the great Narmada project providing irrigation and drinking water to Kutch and Saurashtra, which were starved of water for centuries. Notwithstanding its daunting finances, he was audacious enough to see through the successful implementation of this iconic project. Gujarat’s economy has witnessed transformative changes under his leadership.
During his first term as PM, he oversaw multiple new initiatives of a far-reaching character, including the Swachh Bharat Mission, Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana and the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, among many others. Though Swachh Bharat has led to the construction of over 9 crore toilets since 2014, I believe that focusing on the debilitating influence of open defecation—which millions of people had historically believed was healthy—on health and hygiene particularly for the young and the vulnerable, and subsequently moving away from it needed a mindset change. The challenge will be to keep these toilets functional, ensure availability of water and have additional arrangements for treating the waste in a scientific way.
Undoubtedly, access to toilets, improved road connectivity, improved cooking mediums that are environmentally friendly, as well as inclusive banking will bring about far-reaching changes in the rural society. All these initiatives, more than their immediate tangible economic and social benefits, represent mindset changes.
While the Jan Dhan Yojana is a national mission of financial inclusion, which follows an integrated approach to provide banking services to all households in the country, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code has proved to be a game changer as it takes the issue of non-performing assets (NPAs) head-on. The code allows either the creditor or the borrower to approach the National Company Law Tribunal to initiate insolvency proceedings and obtain time-bound resolutions. Indians, for long, had become used to never-ending litigations, fostering among promoters a culture of unaccountability in meeting their debt obligations, and among banks, the habit of ever-greening, which means giving further loans to those from whom repayments are due and thereby buying more time before formally declaring them NPAs. The working of the IBC needs to be constantly monitored and suitable changes made so that the clogging up of too many undecided cases can be eliminated.
It is not unnatural that critics find PM Modi’s style authoritarian, as we are witnessing a rise of dominant leaders all over the world, like Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Xi Jinping, Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Boris Johnson, to mention a few. If the Westminster model is in terminal decline, so be it. In the end, what matters are the preferences expressed by the people through a democratic process and a renewal of their mandate through periodic elections.
Analysts have given varied answers to repeated questions about the factors leading to Modi’s resounding win for a second term. The PM himself gave a short response in his inaugural address at the recent Hindustan Times Leadership Summit in December 2019. In his characteristic simple style, he said, ‘People express[ed] their support for me in a renewed mandate and that is why I got elected for a second time. It was as simple as that.’ Obviously, in any second term, electoral expectations are much higher and only time will tell if their expectations aligned with the outcomes.
Modi is popular but not populist. During two of his conversations with me and then much later with the Finance Commission, he narrated his commitment to macroeconomic stability. He mentioned that in the Gujarat election campaign of 2007, when he was descending from the stage after a public meeting, he was surrounded by mediapersons wanting to know his reaction on the Congress manifesto, which announced free water, free electricity and farm loan waivers. They also asked if he, too, had any plans to improve on these populist promises. In fact, he was being encouraged to make similar promises by some of his own key advisors within the BJP itself. Instead of yielding ground, he addressed a press conference thereafter to categorically announce that he would not give free water, free electricity and farm loan waivers. Instead, he announced that he would give higher economic growth, better quality of life and an improved security environment. People would benefit more from improved long-term sustainable incomes than populist measures, which were short-lived and fiscally irresponsible. Indeed, it is his commitment to probity in public expenditure that has repeatedly veered him away from fiscal profligacy.
The second thing that has struck me is his elephantine memory. If he has told you something, you would be making a terrible mistake in coming to the conclusion that he has forgotten either what he has told you or the context in which he made that remark. As an example, he had, at the beginning of my tenure as the chairman of the Fifteenth Finance Commission, mentioned several aspects of monitorable performance criteria that needed closer attention and the need to ensure that outcomes could be tangibly related to the resources that were being made available. Recognizing the constitutional nature of the commission, he was meticulous in suggesting that these be examined on their merits. In subsequent meetings, he clearly remembered and recounted what had come up in our initial discussions.
One of the spectacular successes of Modi has been in the area of cementing foreign relations. Considering that he had no prior exposure to Delhi, the success achieved in strategizing partnerships with key global allies like the US, Japan and European countries has been a high point as also his ability to balance conflicting relationships with Russia and China, while deepening relationships within the BRICS and G20 countries.
Finally, I am amazed at his energy level, which would be daunting even for somebody much younger than him. I met him once in an election meeting for the 2015 Bihar state election campaign in Purnea, for which he had flown overnight after attending a banquet overseas. He had not slept a wink, except perhaps on the aircraft, had changed his clothes at the airport and looked daisy fresh at the meeting. How many people can cope with this overwhelming schedule, not only in terms of physical endurance but sequencing their thoughts and never losing a sense of the target audience that they were addressing?
Excerpts from the book, ‘Portraits of Power’, published by Rupa (Rs 595).
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PANKAJ BHARGAVA’S TRAVELOGUE UNVEILED BY AMBASSADOR OF NORWAY
Pankaj Bhargava’s travelogue titled “Khanabadoshiyan,” published by Vani Prakashan, was recently unveiled by Hans Jacob Frydenlund, the Ambassador of Norway to India. The launch event, which was held at the Royal Norwegian Embassy in New Delhi, was hosted by Aditi Maheshwari-Goyal, Executive Director, Vani Prakashan Group. “I am happy to see that for the first time a travelogue about Norway has been written in Hindi.
It is hoped that through this book, Norway will become better known as a nation of friendship and hospitality, “rejoiced Ambassador Frydenlund.”
Arun Maheshwari, Managing Director, Vani Prakashan Group, who was also present on the occasion, averred, “In my opinion, nomads are that light scent of a natural fragrance that shakes the dream of life. I am certain that the Vani Prakashan Group’s relationship with Norwegian literature, which has been flourishing for almost 25 years, will reach new heights with Pankaj Bhargava’s travelogue. “ A book reading session was also held as part of the event, wherein Bhargava read out some of his favourite sections from the book. “I hope that my travelogue will inspire young people to visit Norway. “I would like to dedicate the travelogue to my readers,” said Bhargava.
While recounting his experiences of travelling across Norway with his friends, Bhargava recollected the challenges that they had to face to catch a glimpse of the Northern Lights, coined by Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei as’ aurora borealis’ in 1619—after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek god of the north wind, Boreas.
They are a natural phenomenon found in both the northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth’s sky, predominantly seen in high-latitude regions. Auroras typically display dynamic patterns of brilliant light that appear as curtains, rays, spirals, or dynamic flickers covering the entire sky.
Sharing her thoughts about Bhargava’s travelogue, noted theatre artist and writer Rama Pandey opined, “‘Khanabadoshiyan’ is a sweet book and such sweet books, which are light in weight, relieve you from stress.” I must congratulate Pankaj Bhargava and the Vani Prakashan Group for bringing out such a book. “ Noted poet Aalok Shrivastav said,
“When a journalist associated with the visual medium writes, the observation is bound to be very good in his writing.” In fact, ‘Khanabadoshiyan’ is so visually rich that it is not just a book but cinema in 70mm.”
Praising the travelogue, noted writer Bhagwandas Morwal asserted, “Pankaj Bhargava’s book is a travel memoir. More such travel memoirs should come out in Hindi.
The veteran poet Suman Keshari, who was also present on the occasion, congratulated the author and said, “From what Pankaj wrote about Norway in his book, it was as if we had seen the city through his own eyes.
Defying parental wishes, cultural expectations
Jahnavi Barua belongs to that growing pantheon of Indian writers in the English language whose style is a new movement in literature that has quietly developed almost unseen over the past few decades. The story is mainly set in Assam and Bangalore and touches upon various themes like home, family, belonging, finding oneself, and self-love—all of which will touch the readers in some way. It is Assam in the 1980s. As deep political unrest simmers in the background, the intertwined lives of a household will change forever. The book talks about estranged families and relations and how they can be mended over time. “Undertow” explores how family dynamics are altered when a family member chooses to marry an “outsider,” in defiance of cultural expectations and parental wishes. The novel also deals with how relationships undergo a sea change when a family member defies societal norms and parental wishes to marry an “outsider”.
Loya is twenty-five: solitary, sincere, with restless stirrings in her heart. In an uncharacteristic move, she sets off on an unexpected journey, away from her mother, Rukmini, and her home in Bengaluru, to distant, misty Assam. She comes looking for her beloved Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, but also seeks someone else-her grandfather, Torun Ram Goswami, someone she has never met before. She arrives at the Yellow House on the banks of the Brahmaputra, where Torun lives, not knowing that her life is about to change. Twenty-five years ago, Rukmini had been cast out of the family home by her mother, the formidable and charismatic Usha, while Torun watched silently. Loya now seeks answers, both from him and from the place that her mother once called home. In her quest, she finds an understanding not only of herself and her life but also of the precarious bonds that tie people together. A delicate, poignant portrait of a family and all that it contains, “Undertow” becomes, in the hands of this gifted writer, an exploration of much more: home and the outside world, the insider and the outsider, and the ever-evolving nature of love itself.
The story is universal, and the reader will relate to it because it is the story of people around us. Author Jahnavi Barua tried to explore what happens when reconciliation doesn’t happen. We learn how to deal with other human beings right from childhood and within our families. While we learn about love, trust, loyalty, honesty, ambition, hard work, and politics in an extended family, we also learn about rejection, betrayal, and selfishness. Author Barua tried to tell us that we go out into the world with what we learn in a family. The tangible and intangible ways we respond to people depend on what we learned growing up. The core of the book is about what it is to be human, and a lot of it depends on being self-aware. There is a kind of positivity, acceptance, and tolerance in knowing what you want and getting it in a good way without stepping on someone else’s toes. The novel “Undertow” deals with the many such small things that make up a whole where relationships are concerned—how old hurts, grudges, and ego get in the way, as do new anxieties. With characteristic restraint and disarming, author Jahnavi Barua lays bare the disquieting predicaments of contemporary urban life and reveals the timeless and redemptive power of love, friendship, and self-renewal. It may sound unusual, but it is, in fact, an ingenious example of the effectiveness of narration; deeply touching, but never sentimental; restrained, but never frustrating; patient, but always page-turning. The beauty of Assam and the river Brahmaputra are so mesmerizingly described, which compels you enamored reading it and there is this uncanny yearning to see this heaven!
This moving book evokes in one a longing for the lucid exchanges that take place only in the most intimate moments. Rich in lyrical passages and rife with descriptive beauty. From impulsive, split-second decisions to the patient and overly optimistic, Jahnavi Barua writes with depth and evokes manifold emotions through her effortless prose and skilled storytelling. Terse and tense, this wonderful book is worth every second that you decide to spend on it. Quite adept at stirring emotions, the author addresses most characters, giving us their side of the story. Loya’s choice of men, in search of comfort and to be held, a physical action denied by her mother, surfaces now and then. Tarun’s guilt for abandoning his daughter runs parallel to his unabashed love for his wife Usha- the epicenter of all his troubles. The other characters bring a different perspective, this building is a story layered with emotions and the nuances of the human being and amidst all this is the Brahmaputra, a silent observer and sometimes a patient listener to the troubles of this family, a river that has seen this land come into existence, fight battles of its own and has offered solace to many a weary soul. The people of Assam believe fiercely in their roots, a rare love. This is the anchor that holds this story together, instilling in Loya the love for her roots and, finally, giving this family much-needed closure. This book is heart-wrenching, at the same time encouraging and full of hope. The story grips the reader in such a way through all kinds of emotions, sadness, and uncertainties of life. Raw feelings regarding abandonment as well as coming to terms with emotions so deep have been portrayed well. It is a book worth going back to on a day when you’d want to find the light at the end of your despair tunnel. This novel evoked so many unspoken emotions within you that your heart would be heavier with love and full of hope turned the last page.
Ashutosh Kumar Thakur is a Bangalore-based Management professional, Literary Critic, and Codirector with Kalinga Literary Festival. He can be reached at [email protected]
Usha- the epicenter of all his troubles. The other characters bring a different perspective, this building is a story layered with emotions and the nuances of the human being and amidst all this is the Brahmaputra, a silent observer and sometimes a patient listener to the troubles of this family, a river that has seen this land come into existence, fight battles of its own and has offered solace to many a weary soul. The people of Assam believe fiercely in their roots, a rare love.
Ashutosh Kumar Thakur is a Bangalore-based management professional, literary critic, and codirector with Kalinga Literary Festival. He can be reached at [email protected]
HERE’S A BOOK THAT HELPS YOU NAVIGATE THE UNCERTAIN NATURE OF JOBS IN INDUSTRY 4.0
A gripping book full of incredible insights, Rajesh Srivastava’s ‘The 10 New Life-Changing Skills: Get Them & Get Ahead’ is meant to equip professionals with necessary skills such as creativity, problemsolving, innovation, and design thinking, among others, so that they can remain relevant in an ever-changing business world
THE FUTURE OF JOBS
The earlier 3 Industrial Revolutions (3IR) created bluecollar and white-collar jobs. Now, the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), also referred to as Industry 4.0, has commenced. It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital and biological spheres. The nature of jobs in Industry 4.0 is still not fully formed. It is still not entirely clear what shape and form they will take. Then how shall we prepare for jobs that are not entirely formed and are still evolving? A consensus is emerging that Industry 4.0 is creating ‘thinking and reflective’ jobs which can be labelled ‘green-collar’ jobs, because the colour signifies growth and renewal, sustainability and moving ahead. Green-collar jobs would require people to possess higher levels of cognitive skills, self-management skills, social skills and emotional skills. Let us dive deep into them to gain a cogent understanding of them.
HIGHER-LEVEL COGNITIVE SKILLS
Skill 1: Creativity. It requires the use of imagination to combine and connect different ideas in new and imaginative ways to come up with big ideas.
Skill 2: Innovation. It requires the discovery of opportunities and implementing ideas to achieve profitable results.
Skill 3: Critical thinking. It requires challenging traditions, questioning assumptions and defying norms that have outlived their utility, and installing new ones in their place.
Skill 4: Framing the right question. It will lead to the right answer, which will open up a treasure trove of new business opportunities that would have remained undiscovered but for the right question.
Skill 5: Smart problemsolving. It requires leveraging creativity, innovation, critical thinking and similar skills to come up with smart solutions.
Skill 6: Lifelong learning. It increases employability, accelerates career advancement, enhances self-confidence, helps one remain relevant and face the unexpected with aplomb. In brief, it is a passport to being a lifelong winner.
Skill 7: Storytelling. It is the most powerful way to put ideas into the world.
Skill 8: Influence without authority. It helps to get people to see your way of thinking, motivate them to support your initiatives and adopt your idea of their own free will.
Skill 9: Humanness. In the earlier 3IRs, people did what they were told to do. Therefore, they bought their bodies to work, leaving their minds and hearts behind. Industry 4.0 is giving birth to green-collar jobs which entail ‘thinking and reflection’. Therefore, people must bring their minds, hearts and bodies to work. It has the potential to unlock people’s unlimited potential. Skill 10: Entrepreneurial spirit. It is an intangible energy that inspires people to harbour aspirations greater than the resources at their command. When this spirit is alive, businesses keep their mojo and maintain their edge. These skills will help you adapt to yet unborn jobs, no matter what shape and form they shall take.
A word of caution:
These skills are not substitutes for hard skills, i.e., technical knowledge or training. Those you must acquire. But the combination of hard skills coupled with these skills will help you thrive in the workplaces of Industry 4.0.
The excerpt is from ‘The 10 New Life-Changing Skills: Get Them & Get Ahead’ (Penguin Random House India).
THIS BOOK ADDRESSES UNEXPLORED AREAS IN THE COPYRIGHT DOMAIN
The book ‘Novel Dimensions of Copyright Law’ edited by Prof (Dr) S Sivakumar and Prof (Dr) Lisa P. Lukose (published by Thomson Reuters) has officially been launched by Justice S. Ravindra Bhat, Judge, Supreme Court of India, in a function jointly organised by Indian Law Institute, New Delhi and CLEA (Commonwealth Legal Education Association) on 22 July, 2022. The book addresses in-depth hitherto unexplored areas in copyright domain such as copyright issues in online education, artificial intelligence, circulation of e-newspaper, deepfakes, synthetic media, social media, academic integrity, multimedia, online copyright exhaustion, software piracy, street art, etc., The guest of honor, Praveen Anand, Managing Partner, Anand and Anand introduced the book to the audience. The Chief Guest and the Guest of Honour emphasised the ever-expanding role of copyright laws in the era of ICT. Prof (Dr) Manoj Kumar Sinha, Director Indian Law Institute addressed the gathering and received the first copy of the book. Prof (Dr) Sivakumar, Senior Professor, ILI and Former Member, Law Commission of India presented editor’s response and (Dr) Lisa P. Lukose, Professor, Indraprastha University, Delhi proposed the vote of thanks.
The rise of fintech in India
Technology disrupted finance many times over in the latter half of the past decade. Bank accounts, brokerage accounts, credit cards, mutual funds—some of the most important and basic financial products—can be opened in a matter of minutes, provided you have basic verification (KYC—Know Your Customer) in place. India’s expansion of financial services has been so successful that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) wrote a paper in February 2021 on how other emerging markets and developing economies can learn from our experience in building the now-famous digital infrastructure called the India Stack. Fintech is part of this transformation.
While there was no single magic moment or tipping point for fintech in India, one of the earliest predictions was back in 2015 by Nandan Nilekani, co-founder of Infosys and ex-chairman of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI). UIDAI developed the Aadhaar biometric system which is the ‘A’ in the JAM trinity (Jan Dhan–Aadhaar–Mobile), widely acknowledged as a pivotal driver for financial inclusion in India. Nilekani, while talking at an entrepreneurs’ meet organized by The Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE), said, and I quote from an NDTV article:
. . . in 2009 there was a WhatsApp movement in telecom. My analysis is, in 2015, there is a WhatsApp movement for finance in India.
Change is coming on many fronts . . . new licences, smartphone Aadhaar identification, e-sign, payment banks, etc. Some of it is regulated, some of it is technology, some of it is design, and some of it is market . . . [link to full video]
Nilekani was right and change did come in a very big way. Paytm’s digital wallet in 2014 was the first (Mint, 2019) Indian app to use a quick response (QR) code. It was such a runaway success that by December 2017, Paytm became the first Indian app to cross (Singh J., 2017) 100 million downloads. In April 2016, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) launched the Unified Payment Interface (UPI) which went on to transform digital payments in India. In September 2016, Mukesh Ambani announced that Reliance Jio would offer free voice calls and unlimited data till 31 December 2016; Jio added 50 million subscribers in eighty-three days (Sengupta & Khan, 2016) and India is now the world’s largest consumer of mobile data (Abbas, Economic Times, 2021). In November 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced demonetization of currency notes of Rs 1000 and Rs 500 denominations which would play a major role in spurring payments via digital platforms. All these seemingly unrelated events played a huge part in sparking the fintech revolution in India. Today, QR codes and UPI are the things we take for granted while making payments through our smartphones to just about anyone, from kirana shops to newspaper vendors. And the success is of a global scale. To put things in perspective, UPI crossed US$ 100 billion in value in December 2021 (Singh, T.D., 2022), just over five years after its launch.
Fintech sits right at the top of India’s huge start-up ecosystem. The National Investment Promotion & Facilitation Agency’s website states that there are more than 2100 fintechs existing in India today, over 67 per cent of which have been set up in the last five years. The Indian fintech industry ecosystem consists of subsegments including Payments, Lending, Wealth Technology (WealthTech), Personal Finance Management, Insurance Technology (InsurTech), Regulation Technology (RegTech), etc. With the pandemic restricting our movement, everything went online. NASSCOM, India’s apex body of the information technology and business process management (IT-BPM) industry, called 2021 ‘The Year of the Titans’. In its January 2022 report, NASSCOM stated that BFSI (which includes fintech start-ups) in India enjoyed a lion’s share of investments across all stages. In 2021, India added thirteen BFSI unicorns, and saw an increase in seed and late-stage median ticket size by four times, and had more than fifteen rounds of US$ 100 million-plus funding.
The best way to understand technology’s impact on personal finance is to open your smartphone and check the number of personal finance apps. Almost every financial product in your life will have an app. So, you will have the apps of your banks (HDFC Bank, SBI, etc.), payments apps (like Paytm, Google Pay, etc.), investment apps (Smallcase, Paytm Money, ET
Money, etc.), domestic stock market apps (Zerodha, Angel One, IIFL, etc.), international stock market apps (Winvesta, Vested, etc.), portfolio tracking apps (INDMoney, Mprofit, etc.) and so on and so forth. Even these are just scratching the surface because there are apps for lending, insurance, crypto and more. Payments are integrated within shopping apps such as Amazon, delivery apps such as Zomato, lifestyle apps such as Myntra, etc. So, you can now choose to pay via UPI, digital wallet, credit cards, and—one of the hottest fintech areas of the past few years—buy now pay later (BNPL). Thus, fintech start-ups in India have transformed financial habits in general and access to financial products in particular. For example, today, we can buy US stocks like Apple and Tesla sitting in our homes in India—all with the tap of an app. And people are lapping this up. In 2021, as per a Times of India article (Hariharan, 2022), investments by Indians in the US stock markets more than doubled to US$ 300–500 million. Apps have enabled a change in saving habits, which can be seen in the ease of onboarding and starting an SIP in mutual funds. Starting an SIP is an easy and seamless process and, as mentioned earlier, SIP inflows in December 2021 crossed (Raj, 2022) Rs 11,000 crore—which is remarkable because SIP inflow was probably a rounding-off error in mutual funds flow a few decades ago. The sheer range of financial products now can be dizzying to anyone new to finance. And this is where technology played a role yet again—by creating a world of content to help us.
The excerpt is from ‘The Wisest Owl: Be your own Financial Planner’ by Anupam Gupta (Penguin Random House).
ECOSYSTEM-BASED ADAPTATION GARNERING INTERNATIONAL TRACTION
Climate change and the pandemic have been with humankind as perennial problems for ages, wreaking havoc on human lives and prosperity. Mass vaccination has provided a semblance of respite to humankind from the scourge of the pandemic, but climate change continues to threaten the very existence of biotic life on Earth. Among the various solutions advanced by scientists to combat climate change, Ecosystem-Based Adaptation is garnering sufficient international traction, and its successful implementation in many countries, as portrayed in the book, is a testimony to its rationale and contemporary relevance. It presents a close examination of the role of ecosystem-based adaptation in managing river basins, aquifers, flood plains, and their vegetation to provide water storage and flood regulation. The book explores improved ecosystem-based services for managing floods, conservation of water and its resources, avoiding water scarcity, and ensuring long-term water security planning, in the context of sustainable development goals.
The academic and research worth of this book lies in its prime focus on applying ecosystem-based adaptation to major goals enshrined in the 2030 Agenda, which is touted as a plan of action for the prosperity of the people of planet Earth. The author has meticulously intertwined linkages between ecosystem-based adaptation and major sustainable development goals by specifically focusing on viz., tackling the problem of hunger (SDG-2) by ensuring food security; clean drinking water (SDG-6) by ensuring water security; sustainable cities (SDG-11) by moving towards sustainable smart cities; climate action (SDG-13) by understanding the magnitude of the challenge of climate change and suggesting means to cope with this problem; safeguarding life below water (SDG-14) by suggesting means and measures to sustain life below water; and protecting life on Earth (SDG-15) by adhering to means and measures that help conserve life. The salient feature of this book lies in its emphasis on nature-based solutions, with specific emphasis on ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), and it recommends mainstreaming EbA into national, provincial, and local level adaptation plans as a means to realise the goals of Agenda 2030. This book is helpful to scientists, policy-makers, climatologists, development experts, and all those interested in saving this planet from the vagaries of climate change because it paves the way for easy implementation of sustainable development goals for ensuring a secure and sustainable future.
The book has ten chapters, and each chapter deals with the diverse ecosystems. The first chapter focuses on the concept of disaster and its interlink ages with notions of risk and hazard, along with an emphasis on vulnerability and resilience as well. The second chapter provides a brief description of the main components of climate change—atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Chapter three focuses on the Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) approach as a concept, along with a brief examination of the major ingredients of the approach. Chapter four takes into account the pros and cons of mitigation and adaptation measures to deal with climate change. Chapter four takes into account the pros and cons of mitigation and adaptation measures to deal with climate change. Chapter five deals with the theme of water security with a specific focus on the issues of water quality and water scarcity, and thereafter proceeds to analyse the impact of climate change on water. Chapter six takes into account the concept of food security, which is elaborated with a brief appraisal of the notion of hunger and the impacts of climate change on ensuring food security. Chapter seven deals with smart cities, along with a focus on linkages between urbanisation and sustainable development. Chapter eight focuses on life below water, with specific emphasis on environmental stressors like ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and sea-level rise, along with anthropogenic stressors like plastic pollution, oil spills, overfishing, greenhouse gases, land-based sources of marine pollution, etc. Chapter nine focuses on the theme of life on Earth, with a specific focus on freshwater ecosystems, forests, genetic resources, wildlife, and land-use, etc. Chapter ten emphasises mainstreaming EbA in programmes and policies in the action plan at national and provincial levels. The concept of mainstreaming is examined along with categories of mainstreaming climate change adaptation.
The writer is a former journalist and works in the Haryana Electricity Regulatory Commission as Dy Director, Media.
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