‘“The internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow.”
The internet has been in existence since 1960’s and the World Wide Web (WWW) since 1990’s. The internet has now become all encompassing; it touches the lives of every human being. In today’s time, social media is a well-known name for every person. Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines social media as “forms of electronic communication (such as websites for social networking and micro-blogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos). Now-a-days, no letter or telegram (not a play-store application) is needed to share information. A fast medium to exchange views globally has been evolved in this fast-pacing world. Social Media has radically changed the lives of the people – for good or for bad – is a questionable matter. As social media has become an inevitable part of our lives criminal activities relating to social media has also become an inseparable part of social media. The social media has given the room for criminal activities to flourish in an online mode. No person – be it individuals, government agencies or any other private companies – has been left unconscious with the advantages of social media. However, technology while providing so many perks pose threats to individuals and the world. The creation of a virtual world where people can share information, exchange pictures, become friends, play games, fall in love, fight, etc. without having actually meeting face-to-face is the major reason behind the popularity of social media. The social media has imposed threats on the security, privacy and also the dignity of the people, which has hiked the cyber violence and puts forward a challenging mess at a global level.
SOME STATISTICS TO WONDER
In recent times, there has been a spurt in the number of users of social networking sites, especially due to Covid-19 pandemic. It can be seen from the rise in the Facebook users from 2.45 billion monthly users in 2019 to 270 billion monthly active users by June 2020 with an increment rate of 12% over a year. The International Telecommunications Union estimates that almost 40% of the world’s population and over 76% of people in developed countries are now internet users. According to the Chief of NIA (National Investigating Agency), Alok Mittal, “every sixth cyber-crime in India is committed through social media.” There were around 150 cases of cyber-crimes on social media in our country in 2016, which increased to around 300 cases in 2017. Fraud cases on social media have also increased by 43% in 2018. Approximate 44,546 cases were registered under the cyber-crime head in 2019 as compared to 27,248 cases in 2018. Therefore, a rise of 63.5% was observed in cyber-crimes by National Crime Reporting Bureau. These statistics are worthy of considering the fact that along with an increase in the number of users, there has also been a spike in the cyber-crime cases.
IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA
We are generally aware of the benefits of the internet; however, its anonymous nature allows miscreants to indulge in various cyber-crimes. Taking the positive side into consideration, social networking sites allow users to connect with the families and friends within seconds residing far away from them through audio and video calls, chat-rooms and many other functions provided by it, which helps in bridging the gap between persons. The people can remain updated about the worldly affairs just with a click on their devices. The social networking sites also help in finding and providing appropriate employment and educational opportunities to finders of the same. More importantly, social media is the easiest way to express opinions and views. Therefore, social media makes life accessible and enjoyable for the people.
Nonetheless, keeping negative side in view, social media also leads to social isolation as in face-to-face interaction has become minimal in the times of pandemic. This, in turn, affects the mental, emotional, psychological health of the people and causes anxiety, fear of missing out, depression and many other issues. Privacy, these days, has become a matter of concern. The third party uses the private information of the individuals and commits cyber-bullying and cyber-theft among teenagers. The spread of obscene content on the social media makes the youth vulnerable to these things. They lose their productivity in online chatting all day. Also, the misinformation spreads faster rather than relevant one, which can be for any purpose such as advancing enmity between various ethnic and religious groups or misleading people, and aggravates virtual hate crimes.
Thus, the underlying fact is that social media has become an indispensable part of our lifestyle. And, virtual space, therefore, becomes a relatively new terrain in terms of the questions it raises about human rights and responsibilities.
CYBER-CRIMES: MEANING AND CATEGORIZATION
Cyber-crime has not been defined in any statute or rulebook. However, it is a culmination of two terms, that is, cyber and crime. Interestingly, the word ‘cyber’ is slang for anything relating to computers, information technology and internet. And, the word ‘crime’ refers to the commission of an illegal activity. Accordingly, the term ‘cyber-crime’ can be inferred as the offences committed using the medium of computers, cyber-space, world wide web, or internet. Therefore, cyber-crimes involve a computer and a network.
Cyber-crimes are “Offences that are committed against individuals or group of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat-rooms, e-mails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)”, defines Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar.
Cyber-crimes can be broadly categorized into three groups against which these crimes can be committed, namely, individual, property and government.
• Individual – Cyber-crimes in the form of cyber-stalking, distributing pornography, trafficking and ‘grooming’ can be included under this category. These crimes are rapidly increasing worldwide.
• Property – Just as the traditional theft of property is committed, in the like manner, the stealing of the personal data can be committed over a computer by using malicious software. Cyber frauds and scams are also prevalent these days.
• Government – Cyber-crimes against government involves cyber-terrorism, which can cause devastation to public and create a panicking situation, if criminals get successful in circulating propaganda by hacking government databases. Recent ‘toolkit’ cases also form a part of this category.
Therefore, it can be sought from the above discussion that either the computer may be used for committing the offence, or the computer may be the target.
TYPES OF CYBER-CRIMES
In the National Cyber-crime Reporting Portal , the following types of cyber-crimes have been discussed –
• Social Media Related Crimes
(i) Cyber Bullying/Stalking/Sexting – The attacker uses the internet and other electronic devices to continuously harass the victim. Also, bullying incidents are committed using online communication medium like e-mail, social networking sites, messengers, etc. to exploit, threaten, embarrass and humiliate the victim. Sexting includes sending and receiving of offending sexual words, pictures, or videos via technology, especially mobile phones.
(ii) E-mail Phishing – The recipient is tricked by designing a fraudulent e-mail message to be a legitimate person or organization, so that, the recipient shares personal information including passwords, bank account numbers.
(iii) E-mail and Profile Hacking – A person’s device – computer, laptop or mobile phone – is broken into by the criminal by using a variety of software and gets the access to the person’s sensitive information embedded in the device from remote location. Such information is then misused by the hacker, which causes trouble to the victim of hacking.
(iv) Fake/Impersonating Profile and E-mail – A fake profile of the victim is created in any platform and then the rumours and objectionable material on social media and instant messaging platforms is circulated to cheat or defame the victim or others.
(v) Online Job Fraud – The incident involves deceiving somebody who is seeking employment by alluring them of employment or of earning high salaries or of extra income and then cheat that person by taking money.
(vi) Online Matrimonial Fraud – The fake profiles on various matrimonial websites are created for cheating purposes.
(vii) Provocative Speech and Intimidating E-mails – The perpetrators send provocative and threatening messages on the victim’s devices by e-mail or any other electronic means.
• Online Financial Frauds
( i) Business Frauds/ E-mail Takeover – The monetary frauds are committed by compromising or taking over business e-mails.
(ii) Debit Card/ Credit Card/ E-wallet/ SIM Swap Fraud – Without the knowledge of the card-holder, the fraudulent online transactions take place in their bank accounts through debit or credit cards or e-wallets.
(iii) Fraud Call/ Vishing – These instances involve receiving of fraud phone calls that appears to be from their bank. The caller pretends to be professional bank representative. This is done with an attempt to seek personal information of the receiver such as Customer ID, Net Banking Password, ATM PIN, OTP, Card Expiry Date, CVV, etc. These fraud calls also include fake, lottery or travel scam calls.
(iv) Internet Banking Related Fraud – It is a fraud or theft committed using e-technology to illicitly remove money from a bank account or transfer money to a different bank account.
(v) Cryptocurrency Related Fraud – India is not having any legal framework to deal with cryptocurrencies. Due to this, the criminals operating on the dark or hidden web use these currencies by raising suspicious requests for business transactions in Bitcoins.
(vi) Salami Attacks – To commit financial crimes, these salami attacks are planned. These attacks involve making unnoticeable alterations to facilitate easy concealment so that it would go unnoticed.
• Other Cyber-crimes
(i) Ransomware – It is a type of computer malware that locks the data holding it as hostage on devices such as computers, laptops, mobile phones, etc. Then, the victim will be asked to pay the ransom as demanded by the perpetrator in some cryptocurrency to get the device unlocked without the guarantee of getting the data unlocked even after paying the ransom.
(ii) Cyber-attacks – There are various types of attacks that can be committed by the criminals such as – Denial of Service (DOS) Attack, Virus/Worm Attacks, Malware/Spyware Attacks. Some unknown applications are downloaded on the user’s device, which halts the functioning of the computer system and causes harm to the user.
(iii) Intellectual Property Rights Violation – IPR theft is described as the theft of copyrighted material, the theft of trade secrets and trademark violations. It also includes piracy in which the person violates the copyrights and downloads music, games, movies and software unlawfully.
(iv) Hacking – These incidents involve accessing unauthorized gain from the person’s device without their permission. It also includes website defacement in which the website is attacked that changes the visual appearance of the site or a webpage. It is also known as web-jacking.
(v) Online Trafficking – The incidents of connecting over social media to buy drugs, or other regulated, controlled or banned products, or victim’s recruitment, advertising trafficking such as women, children, laborer, child pornography, selling of organs, etc. are committed using the cyberspace.
(vi) Online Gambling – This is done by providing illegal online gambling links or content through SMS or other messaging platforms such as WhatsApp, Hike, etc.
(vii) Cyber-chasing – It is a process by which a person’s location is provided by using data which is available online. Geotagging has become a trend these days.
Surprisingly, there are ‘n’ number of ways of committing these crimes. The above-mentioned ways are only handful in number by which cybercrimes are committed. To prevent these crimes, India had enacted a legislation way back in 2000’s known as Information Technology Act, 2000.
INDIAN LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK
Article 19(1)(a) of the Indian Constitution provides for the ‘right to freedom of speech and expression’, giving citizens the freedom to express their views by whatever medium they think fit. Therefore, the medium can be offline and online. This creates an obligation on the government that “the same rights that people have offline must also be protected online.” Therefore, keeping pace with the changing generation, the Parliament of India enacted the Information and Technology Act, 2000 , which was conceptualized on the model of United Nations Commissions on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) recommended by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).
Later, in 2008, the Act was amended giving a new dimension to the IT Laws in the country.
The Act was enacted with an objective “to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as “electronic commerce”, which involve the use of alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and storage of information, to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, the Banker’s Books Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.” The Act extends to the whole of India and it applies also to any offence or contravention committed outside India by any person.
The existing IT Act consists of 13 Chapters, having 90 Provisions and 2 Schedules. Out of these 13 Chapters, Chapter XI (Section 65 – Section 78) is of utmost importance as it provides for the offences under the Act. The Act covers the following offences –
(i) Section 65 – Tampering with computer source document
(ii) Section 43 & 66 – Hacking
(iii) Section 66A* – Sending of offensive messages through communication service
(iv) Section 66B – Dishonestly receiving stolen computer resource or communication device
(v) Section 66C – Identity theft
(vi) Section 66D – Cheating by personation by using computer resource
(vii) Section 66E – Violation of privacy
(viii) Section 66F – Cyber terrorism
(ix) Section 67 – Publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form
(x) Section 67A – Publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act in electronic form
(xi) Section 67B – Publishing or transmitting of material depicting children in sexually explicit act in electronic form
(xii) Section 71 – Misrepresentation
(xiii) Section 72 – Breach of confidentiality and privacy
(xiv) Section 72A – Disclosure of information in breach of lawful contract
(xv) Section 73 – Publishing electronic signature certificate false in certain particulars
(xvi) Section 74 – Publication for fraudulent purposes
The Act provides for a wide range of penalties to be inflicted upon the perpetrators of the above-mentioned offences. Also, the computer and other devices are made liable to be confiscated if contravenes the provisions of the Act under Section 76. Further, the Act has made certain offences compoundable. Section 77A describes that unless the offence has been committed against women, or children below the age of 18 years, or affects the socio-economic conditions of the country, it can be compounded by the competent adjudicating authority if the punishment does not exceed 3 years of imprisonment. The offences punishable with imprisonment of three years and above shall be cognizable and the offences punishable with imprisonment of three years shall be bailable. To investigate cyber offences under the Act, the police officer not below the rank of Inspector, has been given the powers. Interestingly, Section 70A and Section 70B of the Act are worth noticing as they lay out the establishment of National Nodal Agency and Indian Computer Emergency Response Team respectively for ensuring the cyber-security of the country.
Although the IT Act is not all encompassing relating to the offences it covers, but other legislations such as Indian Penal Code, 1860 fulfil the pressing priority.
LANDMARK JUDGMENTS OF INDIAN COURTS
To trace the evolution of cyber law regime in India, it is apt to refer to the landmark judgments delivered by the Indian Courts. The judgments are provided as under –
Shreya Singhal v. Union of India
The Hon’ble Supreme Court, in the instant case, dealt with the validity of Section 66A of the IT Act. A petition was filed alleging that Section 66A violated the fundamental right of free speech and expression, thus, challenging its constitutionality. In its decision, the Court reiterated the three concepts of discussion, advocacy and incitement. It observed that “mere discussion or even advocacy of a cause, no matter how unpopular, is at the heart of the freedom of speech and expression.” It was found that “Section 66A was capable of restricting all forms of communication and it contained no distinction between mere advocacy or discussion on a particular cause which is offensive to some and incitement by such words leading to a causal connection to public disorder, security, health, and so on.” Therefore, the Supreme Court of India struck down Section 66A of the IT Act, 2000 in its entirety.
Syed Asifuddin and Others v. State of Andhra Pradesh and Another
In this case, the Court held that a telephone handset covers under the ambit of “computer” as defined under Section 2(1)(i) of the IT Act. The Court, further, stated that alteration of ESN is an offence under Section 65 of the IT Act which provides for the tampering of the computer source document.
Avnish Bajaj v. State of (NCT) of Delhi
In this case, the three persons were arrested namely – Delhi School-boy, IIT Kharagpur’s Ravi Raj and the service provider Avnish Bajaj – under Section 67 of the IT Act, 2000 and other provisions of IPC, 1860 regarding obscenity. The Court gave a judgment in favour of the service provider Mr. Bajaj stating the fact that he is nowhere involved in the broadcasting of pornographic material. The school-boy was granted bail by Juvenile Justice Board. However, the burden lies on the accused that he was merely the service provider and does not provide content.
STATE OF TAMIL NADU V. SUHAS KATTI
This case involved an accused opening a fake e-mail account in the name of the victim and posted defamatory, obscene and annoying information about the victim because of some previous differences between the victim and the accused. A charge-sheet was filed u/s 67 of the IT Act and 469 and 509 of the IPC, 1860. The Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Egmore convicted the accused person under the said offences. It is a landmark case for its efficient handling and disposal of case within 7 months from the date of filing of FIR.
SMC PNEUMATICS (INDIA) PRIVATE LIMITED V. JOGESH KWATRA
In this case, due to the lack of direct evidence that defendant was the one who was involved in sending the defamatory, derogatory, vulgar, abusive and filthy e-mails to his employers and to different subsidiaries of the said company, the Court did not give plaintiffs the relief of perpetual injunction as prayed as the Court did not qualify the certified evidence u/s 65B of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. However, the Court restrained the defendant from publishing or transmitting any derogatory information in the cyber-space about the plaintiffs.
The cases discussed are just a handful of instances of happening of the cyber-crimes. These crimes are exploding all over the country and the world. Despite of inexhaustive nature of the IT Act, the Indian Courts are handling these matters in the best of their capabilities to meet the ends of justice.
THE WAY FORWARD
To cope with the challenges that this techno-savvy world put forward, revamp in the cyber-security has become an absolute necessity. There needs to be a way forward. Some of the suggestive measures that could be taken to enhance security in the cyber-space are as follows-
The proportional growth of cyber-related laws all over the globe is the first and foremost measure that needs to be taken. Due to this disproportionality, the problem aggravates. Yes, the IT Act and amendments in IPC has given India a good start, but complexities in these acts prevail.
As the cyber-crimes know no territorial boundaries, the jurisdiction becomes a debatable problem. Therefore, the concept of territorial jurisdiction under Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 and Indian Penal Code, 1860 needs a re-look.
To prevent the loss of information and evidence, a highly technical staff to build an infrastructure related to e-crimes and investigation is the need of the hour.
The full article is available on thedailyguardian.com
Section 75 of the IT Act, 2000 discusses about the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the statute. But this could be made an effective provision only when competent authorities will issue warrants and directions for the sharing of information and evidence regarding cyber-crimes between enforcement agencies.
Along with these measures, to adjudicate the cyber-crimes, the judges having cyber and technology knowledge are exigent. Judiciary plays the role of the mediator in realizing the enactment consistent with the social order.
Finally, simple measures such as using of anti-virus software, avoiding misuse of personal information with any stranger, secured e-payments, not clicking on any unauthorized links, should be adopted by keeping vigilance and awareness intact.
These suggestions are not absolute but can definitely help in tackling cyber-crimes and enhancing cyber-security to some extent. Some reforms in the IT Act and personal awareness can be an aid in checking these e-crimes.
Surprisingly, “India was the second most cyber-attacked country in Asia-Pacific in 2020”, read the headline in The New Indian Express Newspaper. This ranking is not a good sign for a country which is having cyber-related laws. These laws are not exhaustive and, therefore, need reforms with the changing need of the hour. The conviction rate in minimal in spite of having stringent laws in the country dealing with cyber-crimes. This is because of the lack of absolute evidences. Therefore, cyber forensics is the new and emerging field and it is encouraged to detect the cyber evidences through appropriate methods. In the country where ‘Media’ is the fourth pillar of democracy, it becomes the responsibility of the media to create awareness among people and not becoming victim of these cyber-crimes itself.
The moot question of the present paper regarding the analysis of relationship between social media and crimes can be concluded by stating that ‘the relationship between social media and crimes is directly proportional.’ As social media is gaining more and more popularity, the cyber-crime is setting its foot more swiftly and inexplicably.
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Judicial intervention in Arbitration: A reality or a Myth?
INSIGHT OF ADR
Alternate dispute resolution techniques are no doubt the future of the country what is in the world and the advancement of legal and judiciary system starts from here only. During the Covid times the ADR sector and its use has been exponentially increased and the awareness about this sector or technique has also been realized or known to the general public. The ADR techniques not only are efficient but also work as a speedy redressal of disputes mechanism in which the parties to the suit do not have to measure the walls of the court rooms rather sit in a place and decide the possible outcomes of the conflict mutually or less formally. Undoubtedly these techniques are now a new normal and one of the most preferred way of dispute resolution since it involves various dispute redressal mechanisms like mediation, negotiation, conciliation and arbitration along with another miscellaneous method of resolution of disputes like Lok Adalat. The ADR techniques are very in famous for solving the disputes between the parties in a very short span of time and very effectively with considering the interests of both the parties in the suit.
ARBITRATION IN ADR
“Arbitration” is defined in Section 2 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996 as “any arbitration, whether or not administered by a permanent Arbitral Institution, and (b) “Arbitration Agreement,” means an agreement referred to in Section 7.” Basically, when we talk about resolving disputes with the help of ADR techniques or arbitration for that matter it is a process in which resolution of disputes is done outside the court premises the conflict will be decided and enumerated by the parties to the suit or the conflict and this present conflict of dispute will be decided by the persons authorized by the court they are known as arbitrators or arbiters or arbitral tribunal which renders the arbitration award. The arbitration award is basically legally binding on Courts as well as on the parties and also enforceable in the courts. With the goal of resolving disputes quickly, it is critical that arbitral cases be determined only on the basis of affidavits and other relevant papers, rather than on the basis of witness testimony.
Arbitration Agreement: A pertinent aspect
Arbitration agreement is also very pertinent aspect when it comes to the enforcement of arbitration has a resolution of dispute mechanism since in the absence of any consensual agreement between the parties to the suit the jurisdiction of arbitration as a resolution process cannot be invoked in any of the matter unless and until there is a pre-existence of a specific agreement clause or an agreement to decide the dispute through ADR or arbitration for that matter. However, invoking or incorporating an arbitration clause in the agreement is the best way to invoke the arbitration award right after the dispute arises. Calling to the principle of severability the two agreements can come into the effect if the first one will be the main agreement between the parties and the second one will be a mere agreement of arbitration or a close to refer all the disputes related to the contract which may arise in the future be settled through the mode of arbitration. Once the arbitration award has been passed it is binding on both the parties along with the court of law.
Judiciary and Arbitration
Since ADR techniques are a part and parcel of judiciary or rather speedy redressal of disputes mechanism so it is very obvious that judicial intervention under arbitration is a facet of smooth running of ADR techniques. Although As per Section 5 of Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996, “Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, in matters governed by this Part, no judicial authority shall intervene except where so provided in this Part.” This section tries to define that there is no scope of judicial intervention when it comes to arbitration proceedings. Since arbitration award includes the intervention of judiciary or judicial authority into the arbitration proceedings this can be called as a vague statement or provision.
Usually the judicial authority or courts does not interrupt in between any arbitration proceedings or arbitration award first handedly. The concept of non-intervention is typically based upon the premise that when both the parties do any contract by their own consensual act have planned to resolve the disputes by the way of arbitration or ADR techniques by invoking any arbitration clause or mediation clause the judiciary and the situation would not have any valid reasoning to intervene in the due process of arbitration or any other ADR technique.
The Section 8 of Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 it says If the parties enter into an Arbitration Agreement, the judicial courts shall, at the outset, refer any case presented before them to arbitration for consideration. Generally, judicial courts enjoy the pecuniary powers to intervene or to recognise and consider any matter where it feels any need of prima facie consideration or where there is no valid contract of arbitration is there between the parties and in this matter any of the parties may file a court complaint with the Original Arbitration Agreement or a duly approved copy of the Contract.
In a case where one of the party to the suit does not provide or possess any arbitration contract or agreement the provisions of Arbitration and conciliation act gives the court of law exhaustive powers to entail all such matters for intervention in arbitration matters. When the court is satisfied that the applying party does not have a copy of the Arbitration Agreement and will not obtain one in the normal course of arbitral proceedings, it has the power to engage and give appropriate orientation to the other party to start producing the Original Arbitration Agreement or its duly signed copy. However, the court’s minor action in instructing the other party to provide an original arbitral award or a certified true copy of the agreement before the court does not preclude the parties from referring the case to arbitration. Section 27 of the Act was implemented to (a) seek the Court’s assistance in receiving evidence and carrying out the order placed by the arbitral tribunal or the parties with the arbitral tribunal’s approval; and (b) assist the arbitral tribunal or a party in taking evidence in order to expedite the arbitral proceedings. As an arbitration court does not have the authority to issue witness summons, enforce the appearance of eyewitnesses, or compel the submission of materials, such assistance or, as Section 27 of the Act puts it, “execution” of the arbitral tribunal’s request is considered important and required. As a result of the arbitral tribunal’s lack of coercion powers, the parties must not pay.
The court also enjoys some other instances where it can step in between the arbitration proceedings which has been enumerated in Section 34 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 mentions the grounds on which an arbitration award can be set aside, which says that the judicial court enjoys pecuniary powers to set aside any arbitral award when it proves that-
• Either party to the arbitration has been rendered incompetent at some point throughout the procedures.
• Any arbitration clause utilised to secure an arbitral award is void under the law if it fails to pass the test of any notice made under the law to which the parties have agreed;
• Arbitration proceedings or any arbitral award in which the arbitration proceedings or any arbitral award did not follow the fair practises of law and it was proven by any party that one of the parties was not given appropriate notification of the selection of the Arbitrator;
• When all parties to the dispute are not properly informed about the arbitral process;
• If all parties are not given a proper and equal opportunity to state their case before the arbitrators, and any party’s right to justice is violated;
• If the arbitral award addresses a subject not covered by the arbitration agreement;
• If the arbitration agreement’s terms of reference were misinterpreted, mis-referred to, or disregarded while rendering an arbitral award;
• If the makeup of the arbitral award panel is not in accordance with the arbitration parties’ accord;
• If the arbitration award has made determinations on such subjects that are outside the scope or course of the arbitral submission. Only that portion of the arbitration awards that is out of context or relation may be thrown aside in this situation.
• In case the arbitrators’ procedure does not correspond to the procedure agreed upon by the parties;
• If the arbitrators’ method is in violation of the act’s policy framework;
• If the court determines that the subject matter of any arbitral award is such that it cannot be decided or settled by arbitration, the court may intervene.
• Any award that has been delivered has been influenced or inspired by fraud, corruption, or a violation of any law;
Any arbitration award that is in violation of any fundamental Indian law principle;
If any award violates the fundamental principles of morality, justice, or equity;
An arbitral award made outside of International Commercial Arbitration can be set aside by the relevant court if the court considers that the award is tainted by the law, or that it spoils or destroys legal principles, as it may look incorrect on the face of the decision.
These are some of the instances where judicial courts tried to intervene in the arbitration proceedings and enjoys enough power through The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 or correct to suggest amends in the arbitral proceedings or arbitral award for that matter if any omission or wrongful act has been noticed by the competent court. Only one of the grounds given out in Section 34(2)(a) or (b) can be used to overturn an arbitral judgement, effectively cementing the fact that if the request cannot hold within the confines specified by the sections, the petition has no standing. Due to the Act’s assertion on sovereign immunity, the majority of arbitral tribunals are ad hoc, and the lack of a streamlined system or qualified arbitrators has failed to achieve its goal of expeditious and economical resolution of disputes, as well as its goal of reducing the line of people flapping their dockets in a litigated case. Because most arbitrators appointed under Section 11 of the Act are retired judges, they rely on long-standing processes and arguments based on their expertise on the bench, resulting in a lengthy and gruelling process that is very similar to a court trial. Further it is to be mentioned that sometimes in the ongoing arbitral proceedings D advocates of both the parties try to procure unnecessary adjournments or raise unnecessary objections which may deter the proceedings to the suit and that’s why some scope of judicial intervention is necessary too.
Instituting the arbitral persons
The appointment of the arbitrators to the suit has been duly inaugurated under Section 11 of Arbitration and Conciliation Act, and the powers to appoint the arbitrators has been conferred in the hands of judiciary only. The 2019 amendments carried out the subtle thrust that the 2015 amendment indicated at through Section 11 (6)(B), which states that delegating of the ability to designate arbitrators does not imply delegation of judicial power. The clause calls for the establishment of specific arbitral institutions in India to take over the role of appointing arbitrators who have been recognised or graded by the Arbitral Council of India. As a result, any appeal that would have been made with the Supreme Court or the High Court must now be lodged with the arbitral institutions authorised for this purpose by the court with jurisdiction.
However in the matter of NTPC v Decona Services Pvt Ltd. The Supreme Court established the principle of minimum judicial interference and laid emphasis on the underlying principle of interpretation of the provisions of the Arbitration act. The apex court also involved into the arbitration awards and matters and numerate it that the courts must not sit in the appeal over arbitral proceedings or awards and the scope of intervention under Section 30 and 33 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 is very minimal. The Court’s Decision turned out to be a significant reassertion of the need of limited judicial intervention in the arbitral proceedings and the sanctity of arbitral awards.
We can say that the arbitration or the other ADR techniques or a facet of judiciary all the judicial justice system and included in the speedy dispute resolution process they are a part of judiciary. There is always a scope of intervention by the judiciary into the matters of arbitration or any other dispute resolution process since it is the judiciary only who keeps a check and balance to all of these proceedings and ensures the proper administration of the speedy redressal of the disputes. It is the judiciary only who takes the upper hand when it comes to arbitration proceedings only and it is a myth that judicial intervention is at every step in the arbitration proceedings since arbitration proceedings are also given a free hand when it comes to smooth functioning of the proceedings in case any dispute arises out of the proceedings then the judiciary has to interfere in the matter.
CIVIL DISPUTE GIVEN COLOUR OF CRIMINAL OFFENCE: SC SAYS CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS SHOULD NOT BECOME WEAPONS OF HARASSMENT
While sending a loud and clear signal that criminal proceedings should not become weapons of harassment, the Supreme Court in a learned, laudable, landmark and latest judgment titled Randheer Singh vs The State of UP & Ors in Criminal Appeal No. 932 of 2021 (Arising out of SLP (Crl.) No. 1190 of 2021) With Criminal Appeal No. 933 of 2021 (Arising out of SLP (Crl.) No. 4237 of 2021) delivered on September 2, 2021 while quashing criminal proceedings initiated against a property purchaser observed that dispute of a civil nature has been given colour of criminal offence. It must be apprised here that the Bench of Apex Court comprising of Justice Indira Banerjee and Justice JK Maheshwari observed that while considering a petition seeking quashing of criminal proceedings, the High Court should examine whether a complaint discloses criminal offence or not depends on the nature of the allegation and whether the essential ingredients of a criminal offence are present or not. The Bench reiterated that Section 482 is designed to achieve the purpose of ensuring that criminal proceedings are not permitted to generate into weapons of harassment.
To start with, this brief, brilliant, bold and balanced judgment authored by Justice Indira Banerjee for herself and Justice JK Maheshwari sets the ball rolling by first and foremost observing in para 1 that, “This appeal is against a judgment and order dated 15th December, 2020 passed by the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad dismissing the application of the Appellant under Section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Cr.P.C.’).”
To put things in perspective, the Bench then puts forth in para 3 that, “As recorded in the judgment and order impugned, the application under Section 482 of the Cr.P.C. had been filed for quashing of proceedings in Crime Case No.5973/2020 (State v. Rajan Kumar) under Sections 420, 467, 468 and 471 of the Indian Penal Code (hereinafter referred to as the ‘I.P.C.’), Police Station Shahpur, District Gorakhpur pending in the Court of the Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, IIIrd District Gorakhpur and also to quash the charge sheet dated 18th January, 2020 and summoning order dated 26th June, 2020. The High Court has, in detail, recorded the arguments of the applicants which are very briefly summarised hereinbelow :-
(i) The case lodged was false and baseless;
(ii) Charge-Sheet had been submitted without proper investigation and evidence;
(iii) No prima facie case was disclosed against the applicants.”
Simply put, the Bench then states in para 4 that, “It is the case of the Appellant that one Arjun Dev and his wife Bela Rani were recorded as Bhumidhar of Plot No. 971M area 918 Aire (hereinafter referred to as the ‘plot in question’) and that they had executed a registered Power of Attorney in favour of the Applicant No.1 Rajan Kumar, who has since died.”
Adding more, the Bench henceforth observes in para 5 that, “It is said that on the basis of the said Power of Attorney, the said Rajan Kumar (since deceased) executed sale deeds in favour of the Appellant and his family members on 16th July, 2014, 1 st August, 2014, 6th August, 2014 and 23rd July, 2014, pursuant to which, the name of the Appellant and others were mutated in the Revenue records.”
Needless to say, the Bench then lays bare in para 6 that, “From the facts, as recorded in the judgment and order under appeal, it appears that during the mutation proceedings, one Smt. Beena Srivastava had filed objections before the Naib Tehsildar but the same were rejected and the property was duly mutated in favour of the Appellant and his family members by an order dated 28th February, 2015.”
Simply stated, the Bench then says in para 7 that, “Smt. Beena Srivastava filed an Original Suit No. 971 of 2014 for cancellation of the Power of Attorney dated 4th June, 2014 and the sale deeds executed by Rajan Kumar (since deceased) in favour of the Appellant and his family members but that suit was dismissed under Order VII Rule 11 of the Code of Civil Procedure, by order dated 18th September, 2015.”
As it turned out, the Bench then discloses in para 8 that, “The order dated 18th September, 2015 was challenged in First Appeal No.531 of 2015 before the High Court. That appeal was partly allowed by an order dated 26th November, 2015 with a direction on the Trial Court to return the plaint of the plaintiff for presentation before the appropriate Court.”
As we see, the Bench then brings out in para 9 that, “Being aggrieved by the order of the High Court dated 26th November, 2015, Smt. Beena Srivastava, approached this Court by filing Special Leave Petition (Civil) No. 2848 of 2016 which had been dismissed by an order dated 8th September, 2016. From the judgment and order impugned, it appears that it had been submitted before the High Court that Chandra Prakash Srivastava and Smt. Beena Srivastava had also filed a Contempt Application No. 706 of 2016 which had been dismissed by an order dated 10th February, 2016. Before the High Court, it was submitted that when Beena Srivastava could not get any relief from the Trial Court right upto this Court, she filed a Writ Petition No. 12275 of 2016 which had also been dismissed by an order dated 28th March, 2016. The said Beena Srivastava’s son, Dr. Virat Swaroop Saxena also filed a contempt application which had been dismissed by an order dated 29th July, 2016.”
Of course, the Bench then puts forth in para 10 that, “Pursuant to the order dated 28th March, 2016 passed by the High Court in Writ Petition No.12275/2016, the Appellant instituted Original Suit No.608 of 2016 in the Court of Civil Judge, Senior Division, Gorakhpur for permanent injunction in respect of the plots in question. It appears that by an order dated 12th April, 2016, temporary injunction had been granted in favour of the Appellant. This is recorded in the judgment and order under appeal.”
Be it noted, the Bench then envisages in para 16 that, “There can be no doubt that the jurisdiction under Section 482 is not exercised for the asking, it is exercised with care in exceptional cases. The scope of interference with an FIR is much more restricted and ordinarily the Court does not interfere under Article 226 of the Constitution of India, when there is an alternative remedy available to the applicant. Furthermore, from the tenor of the order of the High Court rejecting the writ petition, it is patently clear that one of the reasons why the High Court did not intervene at that stage was that the Police report had also not been submitted. The Police report has since been submitted and the charge sheet has been filed. It is true that about 12-13 witnesses have been named. However, the said Bela Rani who executed the Power of Attorney has not even been cited as a witness. Apparently, the said Bela Rani was not even examined by the Investigating Authorities.”
For the sake of clarity, the Bench then observes in para 17 that, “In this appeal, we are not concerned with the underlying civil disputes between the parties which are the subject matter of diverse civil proceedings which are pending between the Appellant and the private respondent in the concerned civil courts. All those civil suits will obviously be decided on their own merits.”
No doubt, the Bench then rightly adds in para 18 that, “The only question is whether there is any criminal offence disclosed in the FIR so far as the Appellant is concerned. When the High Court passed its order dated 5th October, 2017, Rajan Kumar (since deceased), the executant of the sale deed and the Power of Attorney holder was also an applicant before the Court. Today, there has been a change in situation, in that, criminal proceedings against Rajan Kumar have abated since Rajan Kumar is no longer alive. It is the case of the private respondent that the private respondent purchased property. In the meantime, Rajan Kumar, who is no longer alive, on the basis of a false Power of Attorney of Bela Rani, executed a sale deed in favour of Randheer Singh, i.e., the Appellant herein. There is only a vague averment “by connivance”. The next part of the sentence reads “Bela Rani had no right to sell the aforesaid plot.”
Quite rightly, the Bench then points out in para 19 that, “As recorded in the judgment and order, the property in question has even been mutated in the name of the Appellant. Of course, mutation records are not a document of title. Whether Bela Rani had title, whether she validly executed a power of attorney, whether any right has accrued to the Appellant, are matters for the civil court to adjudicate.”
Without mincing any words, the Bench then states in para 22 that, “The charge sheet is totally vague. There is not even a whisper in the charge-sheet of what transpired from the investigation against the Appellant herein.”
To be sure, the Bench then stipulates in para 23 that, “Even though an FIR need not contain every detail, an offence has to be made out in the FIR itself. It is the case of the Private Respondents that Bela Rani has no title. Bela Rani executed a false Power of Attorney in favour of Rajan Kumar (since deceased). Alternatively, the Power of Attorney, in itself, was a forged document.”
Quite forthrightly, the Bench then quite aptly hastens to add in para 24 that, “A fraudulent, fabricated or forged deed could mean a deed which was not actually executed, but a deed which had fraudulently been manufactured by forging the signature of the ostensible executants. It is one thing to say that Bela Rani fraudulently executed a Power of Attorney authorising the sale of property knowing that she had no title to convey the property. It is another thing to say that the Power of Attorney itself was a forged, fraudulent, fabricated or manufactured one, meaning thereby that it had never been executed by Bela Rani. Her signature had been forged. It is impossible to fathom how the investigating authorities could even have been prima facie satisfied that the deed had been forged or fabricated or was fraudulent without even examining the apparent executant Bela Rani, who has not even been cited as a witness.”
While citing the relevant case law, the Bench then states in para 29 that, “In Uma Shankar Gopalika (supra), this Court found that the complaint, in that case, did not disclose any criminal offence at all, much less any offence under Section 420 or Section 120B IPC. The case was purely a civil dispute between the parties for which remedy lay before the civil Court.”
In yet another case law, the Bench then holds in para 32 that, “In Kapil Agarwal (supra), this Court observed that Section 482 is designed to achieve the purpose of ensuring that criminal proceedings are not permitted to generate into weapons of harassment.”
Most significantly, what forms the cornerstone of this notable judgment is that the Bench then minces no words to hold in para 33 that, “In this case, it appears that criminal proceedings are being taken recourse to as a weapon of harassment against a purchaser. It is reiterated at the cost of repetition that the FIR does not disclose any offence so far as the Appellant is concerned. There is no whisper of how and in what manner, this Appellant is involved in any criminal offence and the charge sheet, the relevant part whereof has been extracted above, is absolutely vague. There can be no doubt that jurisdiction under Section 482 of the Cr.P.C. should be used sparingly for the purpose of preventing abuse of the process of any court or otherwise to secure the ends of justice. Whether a complaint discloses criminal offence or not depends on the nature of the allegation and whether the essential ingredients of a criminal offence are present or not has to be judged by the High Court. There can be no doubt that a complaint disclosing civil transactions may also have a criminal texture. The High Court has, however, to see whether the dispute of a civil nature has been given colour of criminal offence. In such a situation, the High Court should not hesitate to quash the criminal proceedings as held by this Court in Paramjeet Batra (supra) extracted above.”
What’s more, the Bench then goes on to forthrightly add in para 34 that, “The given set of facts may make out a civil wrong as also a criminal offence. Only because a civil remedy is available may not be a ground to quash criminal proceedings. But as observed above, in this case, no criminal offence has been made out in the FIR read with the Charge-Sheet so far as this Appellant is concerned. The other accused Rajan Kumar has died.”
As a corollary, the Bench then holds in para 35 that, “The appeal is, thus, allowed. The impugned judgment and order of the High Court is set aside and the proceedings in Crime Case No.5973/2020 are quashed as against the Appellant.”
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. 933 OF 2021
Truth be told, the Bench then holds in para 37 that, “The issues involved in this appeal are identical to the issues involved in Appeal No. 932 of 2021 disposed of earlier today. We may add that in this case, the Appellants are only witnesses to the sale deed and there is not a word anywhere in the FIR about these witnesses except the vague averment that they acted in collusion.”
Finally, it is then held in para 38 that, “For the reasons discussed in Criminal Appeal No. 932 of 2021, this appeal is also allowed and Crime Case No.5973 of 2020 is set aside so far as these Appellants are concerned.”
In sum, the Apex Court has made it very crystal clear in this leading case that it will not allow ever a civil dispute to be given a colour of criminal offence. The Bench also makes it amply clear that all precautions must be taken to ensure that criminal proceedings should not become weapons of harassment. All the courts must always abide to what has been laid down by the Apex Court in this noteworthy case so cogently, commendably, composedly and convincingly! There can be just no denying it!
Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate
CYBER CRIME: A SPIDER, EXPANDING ITS WEB WITH EVERY NEW TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT
In the past few decades, the world has become heavily dependent on information technology. With this we also come across the various instances of cyber crime where it is not just limited to being a mere computer crime but has a huge impact on the society as well. With our maximum number of tasks being performed through the medium of internet it exposes a lot of private data to the network. It has also resulted in becoming an evident threat to an individual’s privacy. The openness and unboundedness of the network has made it easier for the criminal to escape, he goes unchecked as the legal provisions remain superfluous. It has overtaken the conventional infrastructures be it of cables, voice industry, broadcasters, or the print world. It has turned out to be a new opportunity for the criminal mind. Another arena of intellectual property has also been severely affected by it. There is an abundance of information on the internet and this leads to poor patent quality, more copyright and trademark infringements. It even results in a negative impact on the prosecution procedure as the workload and pressure of the patent examining authorities is increasing with the rising number of issues related to the same. The amount of information on the internet is mammoth and this has even affected the economic factor as the cost of retrieving the relevant data has risen up. The problems concerning theft of data through the medium of internet or the unauthorised publication of some one’s work has become a common issue. The easy ways of cut, copy and paste has blurred the boundaries between original and copied work. The storage of vast amounts of data has resulted in its mass copying by uncountable netizens. The criminals take advantage of anonymity on the platform and resort to various ways of defrauding people. Expanding horizons of internet and digitization has resulted in an entire new generation of crimes- the cyber-crimes.
In the contemporary times, computer glitches, cyber crimes and informational harms rising rapidly. The investigation process which involves fact finding and the search for truth is facing legal, technical, operational, and political challenges on its path. To check the behaviour of an individual online and to achieve the purpose of criminal law traditional laws have geared up to some extent and are changing, thereby suiting to the environment of the internet age. To meet the changing legal needs newer technology specific laws are coming in advanced societies. The internet boom has expanded the horizons of criminal activity and has also empowered the non-deviant and inactive criminal to take up new criminal activities which are online. Some of the cyber activities that have been brought within the legal entrenchment are hacking, obscene electronic material, stalking and a few others. But others escape regulation because of their esoteric nature. As it is important for a civilised society to have law similarly it is important to have a legislation to regulate electronic activities. The effect of these crimes is found in the real world though it is committed in the virtual surroundings. However, it is not as easy as it sounds.
In India, cyber laws are contained in the Information Technology Act, 2000, which came into force on October 17, 2000. The main purpose of the Act is to provide legal recognition to electronic commerce and to facilitate filing of electronic records with the Government.
“The existing laws of India, even with the most compassionate and liberal interpretation could not be interpreted in the light of the emergency cyberspace, to include all aspects relating to different activities in cyberspace. In fact, the practical experience and the wisdom of judgement found that it shall not be without major threats and pitfalls, if the existing laws were to be interpreted in the scenario of emerging cyberspace, without enacting new cyber laws. Hence, their is a need for enactment of relevant cyber laws.”
These technological changes have affected jurisdiction and evidence which are two of the most sensitive areas of the legal system.
In the technological spree it is the worst from of casualty. Jurisdiction has always remained a complex issue in international/ transnational matters but it has become even more of a complex issue in cyber-crimes. The majority of cyber-crimes such as stalking, spamming, unauthorised access etc. are often done remotely from a different country. For example, in the case of United States vs. Ivanov, the statue such as the CFAA was explicitly stated to be applied extraterritorially but in several other statues no such provisions are there and are thus the courts are left to decide with the jurisdictional decisions.
EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND PRIVACY CONCERNS
There has been an unending conflict between the collection of evidence and upholding the privacy of the individual so concerned. Computers in a household are one of the most personal assets of the occupant and illegally searching or seizing them might give rise to serious privacy concerns and might lead to the infringement of one’s personal rights. In the light of the same we would discuss two cases. The first one is a case of the United States of America. In Washington vs. Nordlund, the Washington court of appeals had held that warrants which the describe particularly the likelihood that a computer contains data evidencing a crime must show nexus between the crime and data. In India right to privacy is a constitutional right, safeguarded in several judgements. For example, in the case of People’s Union for civil liberties vs. Union of India, it was held by the supreme court that tapping of phone is a serious invasion of privacy which is a part of the individual’s right to “life and personal liberty” and these rights cannot be taken away in by the state except in cases of public emergency.
It can be observed that there exists a policy vacuum regarding how computer technology should be used. Adequate policies must exist for conduct in these situations i.e., policies should be formulated to guide the actions of the users of the network. Another observation made while the research work was done that people are still not fully aware of the correct and safe usages of internet and awareness is required. It is also essential to bring transformations in the traditional laws to suit to the changing times of technological innovations. Digital training for the law enforcement agencies is very much the need of the hour for better functioning of the justice system. Science and technology are an inevitable part of our life and thus the laws also need to evolve accordingly.
The call for equal representation of women in the judiciary
Women judges make a significant contribution to the quality of decision-making and, as a result, to the quality of justice. In order to be selected as a judge, women must have the requisite qualifications. And we are women, with all the social and cultural implications that entails, including intricate family relationships and obligations. Men and women judges have different perspectives on the law and how it affects people.
Recently, N.V. Ramana, Chief Justice of India, stated that women deserve 50% reservation in all levels of the judiciary. He called for global women’s solidarity where CJI mentioned they have only chains to lose, they must unite.
“Condemning centuries of job discrimination against women, Chief Justice N.V. Ramana called for an “urgent correction” and said he strongly supports a “significant percentage” of seats for women in law schools and universities. “Enough of 2,000 years of suppression.” It’s past time for 50% female judiciary representation. It’s your right. Not for charity,” Chief Justice stated at a Supreme Court session organised by women Advocates. India’s higher judiciary, including the Supreme Court and high courts, currently has no policy of female reservation. Reservations in the lower courts are determined by state and the high court policy. Justice Ramana’s statement came weeks after his collegium cleared the path for a female Chief Justice in 2027.
There are presently four women judges in the Supreme Court, out of the sanctioned 34.
On August 31, three judges were appointed to the Supreme Court, bringing the total number of women to 11.
After that, in September 2027, she will become the first female Chief Justice. Her term will be around a month long.
Justice Ramana noted that women make up roughly 30% of the lower judiciary. “Women make up 11.5 percent of high court judges.” Out of 33 justices, four are women. So it’s only 13%.
Only 15% of the 1.7 million advocates are female. Women make up only 2% of the state bar council elected representatives. The Bar Council of India does not have a female member,” the Chief Justice stated. Male attitudes prevent women from entering the workforce.
Insufficient infrastructure, packed courtrooms and the absence of women’s washrooms are all factors that discourage women from entering the field. CJI Ramana mentioned during my high court career, I saw that ladies had no toilets. “Women lawyers have to go considerable distances to court and wait in hallways.”
Diversifying legal education is an essential focal area, CJI said. “As a starting step, I firmly recommend a high number of seats for women in law schools and universities.”
Justice Ramana emphasised that inclusion of “women” judges and lawyers will substantially improve the quality of “Justice delivery” and that he will wholeheartedly support initiatives that will further the cause of eliminating gender disparity in the profession. Women lawyers and judges are role models for young girls aspiring to enter the field, Justice Ramana added. Justices Banerjee, Kohli, Nagarathna, and Trivedi were all complimented for their acts in preserving the Constitution, which he said will inspire women not only in the legal profession but in all aspects of life.
Also Justice Nagarathna said: “Women visibility as judicial officers can pave the way for greater representation of women in other decision-making positions such as legislative and executive branches of the government.”
IS THIS, AS FORWARD LOOKING AS IT APPEARS TO BE, THE PATH TO EQUALITY?
Women judges make a significant contribution to the quality of decision-making and, as a result, to the quality of justice. In order to be selected as a judge, women must have the requisite qualifications. And as we are women, with all the social and cultural implications that entails, including intricate family relationships and obligations. Men and women judges have different perspectives on the law and how it affects people. Women judges bring a broader and more compassionate perspective to the courtroom as a result of their personal experiences. Women in adjudication bring to the fore concerns that would not have been explored otherwise, broadening the discussion and maybe preventing ill-conceived or improper rulings. A gender viewpoint promotes the fairness of judgement, thereby benefiting both men and women. All judges should aim to include a gender viewpoint in their work. When we talk about equality, we talk about equal opportunity, not an assured ticket to ranks. When it comes to Judiciary, wouldn’t equality be giving women an equal and fair chance to appear for the selection process and quality guidance to excel in the same. Women getting 50% reservation, does not imply that all men shall get the remaining 50% based on merit. Those 50% shall also accomodate SC/ST/OBC/ EWS category male candidates. Apart from that, such 50% reservation for women also brings to surface the issue of transgender representation in the Judiciary. It assumes that 50% of the population is women and the remaining are a part of the other 50%. According to the law ministry, only 12% of the 677 sitting Supreme Court and high court judges are women. Only the Madras High Court has more than ten female judges among its 25 members. The Madras high court has 13 female judges out of 58 total, which is over 22% female. Manipur, Meghalaya, Bihar, Tripura, and Uttarakhand have no female judges, whereas seven other high courts have one. India’s 25 high courts have a total of 1098 judges. In September, 465 positions (almost 42%) were unfilled.
WHAT DO WOMEN IN JUDICIARY NEED?
Women have held higher positions in India, such as President, Prime Minister, and Speaker, but they are still underrepresented in higher judicial positions, such as Chief Justice of India, Attorney General, and Solicitor General. The lack of female judges in the judiciary has been highlighted in Parliament multiple times and debated by prominent panels at various legal conferences. Women in the judiciary must be encouraged.
Quality education, scholarships, and equal compensation are all possibilities. In the legal industry. Women are underrepresented in the judiciary compared to men. Women hold around a third of judicial positions.
Better court infrastructure to support women’s Sanitation requirements. Not just in the higher courts, but in the lower level courts where there are no proper toilet/sanitation facilities available for women.
Proper guidance and awareness, throwing away stereotypes, flexibility in age limits for judicial posts, etc.
The Indian judiciary has always wrestled with gender issues. Justices need to be “sensitized” The increase in female judicial participation may also help establish a more balanced and humane approach to sexual abuse cases. This is especially true when male judges fail to empathize with female victims. The judiciary does not tolerate intimidation, exclusivity, or privilege For judicial credibility, female participation is essential. Discriminatory judges undermine public confidence in the court as a protector of the law and human rights. A female presence is required to determine judicial legitimacy. Gender equality in the court and policy-making judicial bodies should be encouraged in order to produce a more just rule of law. Women judges boost public confidence in the justice system. Equal opportunity applies to all women, regardless of aptitude, talent, or skill. As a result, there may be a greater focus on women’s issues and legislation that is gender-neutral, as well as a guarantee of gender-based success or dominance. It is important to encourage more female judges.
Women have held higher positions in India, such as President, Prime Minister, and Speaker, but they are still underrepresented in higher judicial positions, such as Chief Justice of India, Attorney General, and Solicitor General. The lack of female judges in the judiciary has been highlighted in Parliament multiple times and debated by prominent panels at various legal conferences. Women in the judiciary must be encouraged.
Right to Equality and the Indian Constitution: An analysis
The Constitution is the bedrock of the nation’s democratic and secular architecture. After a prolonged period of deliberations and debates, delegates of the Indian population drafted the Indian Constitution. The constitution of India lays down fundamental rights for its citizens in order to safeguard and protect basic rights that can be enjoyed by the Indian citizens. There are six fundamental rights that are given recognition by the Indian constitution, namely, right to equality, right against exploitation, right to freedom, right to freedom of religion, right to constitutional remedies and lastly the cultural and educational rights.
Article 14 of the Indian constitution lays down the foundation of the fundamental right to equality in India. Equality as a concept is very competitive in the sense that it can be thought as a way of levelling the field which further goes on to impact the well-being of all the citizens living in India. The right to equality in the Indian constitution is dealt by five articles- Articles 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18. Article 14 deals with the general provision on equality whereas Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 engage with inequality specific to India. There are essentially three categories of equality- formal equality, equality of opportunity and the equality of outcomes. The Indian constitution isn’t biased towards any one of the categories as it has all of them engrained in it in some way or the other.
There are essentially two doctrines that have been established by the Supreme Court to test the constitutionality of different and diverse laws under Article 14. The first or the old doctrine is also known as the “classification test” and the second and the new doctrine is known as the “arbitrariness test.” This article will aim to focus on the classification test while shedding light on Tarnuabh Khaitan’s opinion of the same as being deferential to the State.
This test pushes the Court towards asking two questions, first, whether the classification made by the law in question was based on an intelligible differentia, and secondly whether the classification had a reasonable relationship with the law’s intended goal. The Supreme Court, led principally by Das J, created the classification test to establish a law’s compliance with Article 14 in its early years, inspired by US jurisprudence under the Fourteenth Amendment.
The evident premise behind these inquiries was that Article 14’s guarantee to equality is only invoked when the law classifies something. Before the categorization philosophy can be applied, there must be some sort of differential treatment between two people or groups of people.
This doctrine only applies to State activity, especially addressing vertical interactions between individuals and the State (though it does cover interactions between two State bodies). Horizontal ties between private individuals remain outside its purview. The reality is that the idea of classification is basically comparative, which is quite opposite to the doctrine of arbitrariness. This indicates that, before classification doctrine is used, there must be some relative differential treatment between two people or two classes. On the other side, for any major failure to establish an action on sound reasons, the doctrine of arbitrariness is asserted. In other words, as stated by Tarnuabh Khaitan in this Chapter in the Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution, the doctrine of classification questions unreasonable comparisons, whereas the unique contribution of the doctrine of arbitrariness is to bring in the sphere of Article 14 the concept of non-comparative unreasonability.
WHY THE TEST IS DEFERENTIAL TO THE STATE
Tarunabh Khaitan in his Chapter in the Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution projects the idea that a highly deferential, astonishingly constrained, and formalist principle for State action is the basis of the classification doctrine, which is designed to address unjustified comparisons among individuals and classes of individuals. He basis the idea of the doctrine being highly deferential in the view that the Court gives the claim of the State a great deal of weight on what the facts are, how the facts should be assessed and whether or not specific standards have been broken.
The argument that the doctrine is deferential is sound in nature and through the supreme court rulings that this article will examine in the next section, it will become clearer that the Supreme Court has went on to provide a leeway to the State when it comes to establishing a violation of the fundamental right to equality under Article 14. A tight screening of the test of proportionality appears to have been used in the Court in many cases, but there are compelling grounds to believe that these declarations were in many of these cases only theatrical covers in which a very deferent evaluation norm could still be used. Furthermore, the fact that the doctrine is limited and formalistic only goes on to add to its deferential nature as by limiting the number of questions that this doctrine can present the Supreme Court fails to go into depth of how the right to equality was violated to start with. The ideology is officialist since the two questions generally satisfy the prima facie wording of the regulation and overlook its influence on people and groups in the real world. It is important to take into consideration the fact that the Supreme Court is capable of expanding the questions that can be asked through this doctrine that could eventually result in a larger burden of pressure on the State to prove why a given right has been violated which in turn could then further result into a lesser deferential doctrine that isn’t biased towards anyone of the sides.
SUPREME COURT RULINGS
The first case that this essay will look into for substantiating the stance of the classification doctrine being deferential is Air India Vs Nargesh Meerza (1981) . In this case the Supreme Court in light of a declaration made by the Central Government itself states that,
“[T]he declaration is presumptive proof of the fact that in the matter of allowances, conditions of service and other types of remuneration, no discrimination has been made on the ground of sex only. The declaration by the Central Government, therefore, completely concludes the matter.”
Essentially, the Court held that the various earnings of air hostesses and flight pursers did not have sex as presumptive proof as a basis of a government declaration. It is imperative to understand that the court gave this statement on just the basis of a government declaration which stated that the categories of employees are divided on the basis of different conditions of service and not on the difference of sex. The court in this case basically relies on the central government’s declaration using the classification doctrine without doing any investigation of its own. The above statement made by the court is clearly problematic in nature and highlights the deferential treatment of the doctrine towards the State.
In the case of Tamil Nadu Electricity Board vs R, Veeraswamy And Ors (1999) ¸ the supreme court was yet again seen applying the doctrine of classification in favour of the State. The supreme court in this case failed to categorise the people who retired before 1st July 1986 and those who retired after the date into one class and due to this reason, the people who retired before 1st July 1986 wouldn’t be able to avail the benefits of the new pension scheme. The court in this case gives a lot of room and attention to the grounds provided by the state which clearly highlight a deferential treatment. the court can be seen stating that,
“The appellant-Board had given well-founded reasons for introducing the pension scheme from 1.7.1986 including financial constraints, a valid ground. We are of the view that the retired employees (respondents), who had retired from service before 1.7.1986 and those who were in employment on the said date, cannot be treated alike as they do not belong to one class”
Further, a limiting and formalistic approach can also be seen applied by the Supreme Court while analysing The Kerala Education Bill as the Court refused to investigate the designation of the Bill to target Christian schools.
The doctrine of classification is the oldest doctrine which helps in determining whether a law has been violative of article 14. However, the doctrine carries with it many limitations which also includes it being deferential towards the state. The problems with the doctrine are further solidified by the subsequent Supreme Court decisions which fail to recognise and improvise the limitations of the doctrine. The deferential treatment towards the state eventually results that is discriminatory towards the citizens of India. It is high time that the limitations of the classification doctrine are recognised, and a more solid and coherent doctrine is established which keeps in mind both the interests of the citizens and the state.
The brawl to brace arms: Challenging the Vermont carry of Texas
In the United States, gun regulation has always been a tendentious affair. Fuel was once again added to fire when Gov. Greg Abbott signed the House Bill of 1927 presented in the Texas legislative session 2021, applauding the ‘permit less carry’ or ‘constitutional carry laws’. It has been postulated by proponents that it is the reinstitution of the second amendment of the US Constitution, which is contentious in itself. The opponents and even some intellectuals are asserting that this permit less carry in the entire state can lead to precariousness as this enactment is propounding a direct threat to human life. Texas arm regulations lucidly inculcates the idea that possession of arms by citizens are subjected to justifiable restrictions which would further be surveilled by the state to avert the misdemeanors or violation of rights of individuals.
SECOND AMENDMENT TO THE US CONSTITUTION: AN ANTINOMY OF AMERICAN CONSERVATISM
The Second Amendment of the United States Constitution, 1791 reads: “A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed”, thereby meaning that the people have the right to possess arms for a rightful purpose, such as self- defense and state militias shall not infringe the rights of the civilians owing to the security of the state.
In District of Columbia v. Heller, the US Supreme Court held that the “Second Amendment to the United States Constitution protects an individual’s right to keep and bear arms, detached from service in a militia, for conventionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense, and that the District of Columbia’s handgun embargo and condition that lawfully owned rifles and shotguns be kept ‘unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock’ contravened with the said guarantee. It also stated that the right to bear arms is not absolute and that it would be regulated and controlled by the state.” This was the foremost Supreme Court case to settle the acrimony as to whether the Second Amendment protects an individual right to keep and bear arms for self-defense or it was planned to grant greater power to the state militias.
In McDonald v. City of Chicago, the Supreme Court of the United States held that the “right of an individual to ‘keep and bear arms’, as protected under the Second Amendment, is incorporated by the ‘Due Process Clause’ of the Fourteenth Amendment and is thereby enforceable against the states, in lieu of use of arms for legitimate purposes.” This judgement sorted out the miasma of uncertainty that was created in the wake of District of Columbia v. Heller.
STATE RIGHT TO BEAR MUNITIONS IN TEXAS
Article 1, § 23 of the Texas Constitution states: “Every citizen shall have the right to keep and bear arms in the lawful defense of himself or the State; but the Legislature shall have power, by law, to regulate the wearing of arms, with a view to prevent crime”, thereby intending that every citizen shall have the right to hold on to arms for a legitimate purpose and Legislature has the authority to undertake measures to stave off felony, and thus imposing fair- minded curtailment on the right to retain arms.
According to Article I, § 13 of the Texas Constitution, carrying of arms is not absolute and is subjected to reasonable restrictions. It also states that the Legislature has power to regulate holding of firearms and thus laws prohibiting the carrying of arms in specified situations does not infringe the right to “bear arms”. The same was reiterated by the Supreme Court of Texas in the case of English v. State and State v. Duke.
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEALED CARRY IN THE US
In 1973, Texas imposed a “duty to retreat” legislation pertaining to claims of self- defence. In order to validate the use of force, an individual had to show imminent danger and reasonable threat to their life. However, force used must be proportionate to the harm or threat faced. This condition under common law is referred to as a “retreat to the wall” essential.
But in 1995, Texas law slackened, putting on a “castle doctrine,” which states that an individual has a right to carry arms in public and doesn’t need to do a lord lucan if it’s done for the purpose of self- defence. This law bolstered in 2007, when the Texas Legislature stated that “individuals didn’t need to beat a hasty retreat at all, rather they just needed to evince that they had a legal right to be present during the act of defense.” This approach is commonly referred to as a “Stand Your Ground” law.
In 2015, The state Legislature permitted college students, faculty and visitors across Texas to carry properly licensed guns on state university campuses and openly carry arms in a lanyard.
CONSTITUTIONAL CARRY: THE HOLY GRAIL OF GUN LAWS
The commencement of September 2021 would be recorded in the chronicles of Texas. After years of eschewing what some proponents of the second amendment of the US called the ‘crowning glory’ of gun laws, the Republican in Texas legislature enacted new legislation which “authorized Texans to carry or possess pistols or handguns without any licenses.” Now Texas will officially be recognized as a “Second Amendment sanctuary.” The inception of this law in Texas and its immediate effect from the 1st of September has shuddered the whole world. With this legislation, Texas would be joining the group of 19 other states having “constitutional carry laws” or “permit less carry laws” and 5 other states having declared themselves “Second Amendment sanctuaries.” The constitutional carry law of Texas has been illuminated in detail below.
VERMONT CARRY: AN INTRICATE ANALYSIS
The House Bill of 1927 introduced in the 87th session of legislature 2021 has revamped the entire scenario of procuring guns in Texas. The proponents of the bill called it a ‘constitutional carry’ law. The bill was concerned with carrying of handguns or pistols openly or concealed by an individual who is 21 years or above without any state-issued license. The competency required is that individuals should not be expelled from state or federal law from possessing firearms. In a nutshell, it can be asserted that legislation rescinded the provision of attaining a state issued license which necessitated proficiency examination with background check. However, those who want licenses can opt for it from the Texas Department of Public Safety (TDPS) after the new law commences. The extra-aid which the licensee would get after the commencement of this law is that some places are interdicted for non-licensees, but are unlatched for licensees. Another characteristic of this law is that non-licensees are not authorized to cross the extremities of the state with guns or pistols. It means that the applicability of the law is confined to the state of Texas.
UPSHOT OF THE GUN- RIGHTS MOVEMENT SWEEPING TEXAS
According to the opponents of the bill, it foisted inexorable menace to human society and their entitlements. The gun laws in Texas were not very stringent since 1995, Texans were authorized to possess pistols or handguns in the public sphere, but licenses were inescapable for the same. If we examine the chronicles of Texas, it can be tracked down that this legislation can prove to be a lethal weapon which can create cataclysmic situations in the coming future. In Texas, back to back mass shootings have been unearthed, a very recent one that transpired at El Paso and Ohio in 2019, trembled the whole world. After the eventuality, some Republican leaders pledged to commend gun laws and instigated stern monitoring policies for the same. Yet the legislative session came with something bolt from the blue which can lead to disastrous outcomes. This legislation not only poses endangerment to civilians, but state authorities, including police officers’ life, are also at stake. It seems that this legislation is pig in a poke as without any doubt it would be escalating the crime rate.
The world’s most developed nation is in a state of trepidation due to the enactment of a legislation which has the potential to cause a catastrophic state of affairs in the near future. DaShanne Stokes truly states “When a country with less than five percent of the world’s population has nearly half of the world’s privately owned guns and makes up nearly a third of the world’s mass shootings, it’s time to stop saying guns make us safer”, thereby accentuating the fact that the newly enacted legislation of Texas, not only jeopardize national security by escalating the casualties of mass shootings, but also account for gross violation of human rights. As we all know, the lustre of a nation lies not in being more astucious than other nations, but rather in the propensity to overhaul its glaring mistakes, hence both the centre and the state should leave no stone unturned to enact stern arm laws before this issue becomes refractory.
Prachi Tripathi, a second year law student at Jamia Millia Islamia, has great enthusiasm for reading and writing on contemporary legal developments and challenges happening around.
Zubia Rehan is a second year law student at Jamia Millia Islamia. A writer by day and a reader by night, she is open to new and ingenious ideas. She believes that- to be oneself in a world that is constantly trying to make us something else, is the biggest achievement.
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