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Research finds easier way to reduce socioeconomic disparities

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Washington [US], March 21 (ANI): Researchers during a recent study from Columbia University and Temple University examined how choice architecture can reduce socioeconomic disparities.
The study, forthcoming in the Journal of Marketing, is titled “Do Nudges Reduce Disparities? Choice Architecture Compensates for Low Consumer Knowledge” and is authored by Kellen Mrkva, Nathaniel Posner, Crystal Reeck, and Eric Johnson.
As Mrkva explains, “Our research demonstrates that people with low socioeconomic status (SES), low numerical ability, and low knowledge are most impacted by nudges. As a result, ‘good nudges,’ designed to encourage the selection of options that are in people’s best interests, reduce SES disparities, helping low-SES people more than high-SES people.”
On the other hand, nudges that encourage the selection of inferior options exacerbate disparities relative to “good nudges” because low-SES consumers are more likely to retain inferior default options. In other words, nudges are a double-edged sword that can either reduce disparities or make matters worse because they impact low-SES people most. The research team generalized its findings across three different types of nudges, several different consumer decision contexts, and real retirement decisions.
This research has major implications, including for the COVID vaccination process. Across the country, millions of people are now eligible to get a COVID vaccine. However, the signup process is often unnecessarily complex. New York’s nycHealthy sign-up portal, for example, includes as many as 51 questions and requests that you upload your insurance card. As a result, many people, especially the elderly, poor, and less digitally literate, have struggled or failed to make an appointment. As Johnson explains, “Our research suggests that making beneficial behaviors like vaccination simpler has a crucial and underappreciated advantage–it reduces socioeconomic disparities. On the other hand, when these behaviors are unnecessarily complex, it is typically low-SES consumers who are harmed the most.”
In five experiments as well as data from real retirement decisions, the researchers show that people who are lower in SES, domain knowledge, and numeracy are impacted more by a variety of nudges. As a result, “good nudges” that facilitate the selection of welfare-enhancing options reduce disparities by helping low-SES, low-knowledge, and low-numeracy consumers most.
In Study 1, participants made five consumer financial decisions. For each decision, they were randomly assigned to a “no default,” “good default,” or “bad default” condition (the latter two pre-selected correct or incorrect options, respectively). After they made these five decisions, participants completed common measures of the three hypothesized moderators–financial literacy, numeracy, and socioeconomic status. As predicted, there was a large default effect. There were also interactions between the default condition and the three moderators; participants lower in these moderators were more impacted by defaults. These effects remained significant when adding survey engagement, comprehension, need for cognition, agreeableness, decision time, and their interactions with conditions to the model as covariates.
Study 2 examines whether these effects generalized across three different types of nudges and three decision contexts. It replicated the SES and financial literacy effects of Study 1 across all nudges and contexts. Unlike Study 1 and all subsequent studies, the nudge x numeracy interaction was not significant. The key effects remained significant when controlling for a measure of fluid intelligence.
Study 3 uses syndicated data from stratified random samples of American households about their retirement investment decisions to examine a sample of people who work for companies that use defaults to automatically enroll employees into retirement contributions. Respondents reported whether they retained or opted out of the default contribution amount and default investment allocation. Evidence supports that lower-SES and less financially literate people are more impacted by nudges and thus less likely to opt-out of these retirement defaults: Lower-SES participants were less likely to opt-out as were participants with lower financial literacy.
Study 4 replicated these effects in the context of COVID-19 health decisions (e.g., deciding whether to wear a mask). Additionally, domain-specific health knowledge moderated default effects whereas other-domain knowledge did not. Studies 5-6 replicated the predicted moderators from Study 1 with incentives. Mediation models suggest that people with lower SES, domain knowledge and numeracy were more impacted by nudges partly because they experience higher uncertainty and decision anxiety when making decisions.
Across the six studies, nudges influenced choice disparities across people. Posner summarizes the study by saying “Our results suggest that nudges that make behaviors such as retail purchases, vaccine sign-up, and retirement contributions more automatic can reduce socioeconomic inequities.”(ANI)

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COVID-19: ABHISHEK URGES PEOPLE TO ‘KEEP MASKS ON’ FOR SAFETY

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Mumbai: As India has crossed the grim milestone of over 2 lakh daily COViD-19 cases on Thursday, Bollywood star Abhishek Bachchan urged people to follow all health protocols, including wearing masks and maintaining social distancing to ensure the safety of their family, elders, friends and loved ones. The ‹Big Bull› actor took to Instagram and posted a selfie wearing a mask, and requested people to take the most necessary precaution amid the pandemic. in the picture, Abhishek is seen donning off white shirt and a matching muffler. he accessorised his look with a chunky pair of sunglasses and a blue face mask covering half of his face. By giving an apt example to people, to keep themselves and their loved ones safe, the ‹Dhoom’ star wrote in the caption, “ to Please, please, Please KEEP YOUR MASK ON!!! if not for yourself, think about your family, elders, friends and loved ones. # maskupmaskon.” Celebrity followers including filmmaker Nikhil Advani and more than 37,000 fans liked the post within an hour of being posted. Fans chimed into the comments section to praise the actor’s initiative to spread awareness among people. One of Instagram users wrote,” Now that is the correct mask (Clapping emoticons) No the one with valves (laughing emoticon) BTS Big Bull rocks! (heart-shaped eyes emoticon).” On the work front, Abhishek, who was last seen in the biographical drama, ‘The Big Bull’, has ‘Dasvi’ and ‘Bob Biswas’ in the pipeline.

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ARJUN KAPOOR SHARES TEASER OF ‘DIL HAI DEEWANA’ SONG

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ew Delhi: The teaser of the upcoming music video ‘Dil Hai Deewana’ by Tseries, featuring Bollywood actors Arjun Kapoor and Rakul Preet Singh was unveiled on Thursday. it’s safe to say that the romantic dance track that was recently shot in Mumbai will have your feet tapping away with its upbeat tunes. The ‘Gunday’ actor took to his Instagram handle and shared the song’s teaser along with the caption “A love story that is filled with fun! #Dil haiDeewana Teaser out now. Song releasing on 17th April 2021.” The fun-filled teaser features a story of ‘The Good, The Bad and The Pretty’, featuring Arjun and Rakul in a super cool and suave avatar, as they groove to the peppy song. Rakul also shared the teaser on her Instagram and captioned it as, “Are you ready for a little glimpse of our love story? DilhaiDeewana Teaser out now. Tune in now: http://bit.ly/DilhaiDeewana Teaser Song releasing on 17th April 2021.” ‘Dil Hai Deewana’, composed by Tanishk Bagchi and penned by Shabbir Ahmed, reunites Arjun with his ‘Aurangzeb’ co-star turned singer, Zara Khan, who has lent the female vocals for the song along with Darshan Raval

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TRAINER REVEALS TIGER’S FITNESS REGIME

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MUMBAI: Jai Hemant ‘Tiger’ Shroff is known for being a highly talented actor and his thrilling action flicks. But none of these comes easy as the actor trains hard daily to maintain proficiency at everything he does from action, dance, martial arts, fitness, singing to acting.

Tiger Shroff’s trainer, Rajendra Dhole said, “If he is not shooting, he is either lifting weights or doing kicks or his gymnastics. He basically spends 12 hours every day training for some set of skills or other like dance, kicks or weights and when on shoot if there is no gym we focus on bodyweight training and the main focus is always diet on the go!

The young actor often shows us views of his hard training in the gym on social media be it boxing, working out or doing martial arts, he is always at it. Tiger is the only actor in Bollywood to ace the space of dancing, fitness and singing, effortlessly as he works long and hard everyday to be on top of his game in all his ventures. He is currently working on action-drama films like Heropanti 2, Baaghi 4 and Ganapath. 

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SANJAY DUTT NEVER GOT HEALTH ISSUES ON THE SET: ZAHID ALI

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Mumbai : Coronavirus has not spared anyone and everyone’s life has been affected due to the deadly virus. Entire nation has suffered losses of life, business and their daily lifestyle. Covid-19 has not left even the bollywood from it’s wrath. Year 2020 was full of OTT releases and delay in theatre release of movies. Abhishek Dudhaiya directorial film Bhuj: The Pride of India is going to be a much awaited film for fans. The film features Ajay Devgn as Karnik, alongside Sanjay Dutt, Sonakshi Sinha, Nora Fatehi, Sharad Kelkar, Ammy Virk and debutante Pranitha Subhash, Ihana Dhillon and Zahid Ali. The film’s shooting is over yet the release date has not been announced. Since the starcast is filled with renowned actors, fans have curiosity to know more about behind the scenes. Zahid Ali who is going to play antagonist in the film spoke about his experience on working on this project. Talking about the role Zahid said, “the role is very special as it has his own shades. Character is different from the roles I have played in past. Actors like Ajay Devgan and Sanjay Dutt are joy to work with.” Talking about Sanjay Dutt’s health Zahid informed that Sanju Baba never got any health issues on the set. While shooting Sanjay used to be very calm and always used to guide other actors to perform better. “Dutt who has been a great villain in several films always helped me to get fit into my role, in fact some of dialogue deliveries has been done by him to bring the character out rightly,” he added.

The makers recently announced that it will stream directly on OTT platforms Disney and Hotstar worldwide. 

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COVID-19: ABHISHEK URGES PEOPLE TO ‘KEEP MASKS ON’ FOR SAFETY

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MUMBAI: As India has crossed grim milestone of over 2 lakh daily COVID-19 cases on Thursday, Bollywood star Abhishek Bachchan urged people to follow all health protocols, including wearing masks and maintaining social distancing to ensure the safety of their family, elders, friends and loved ones.

The ‹Big Bull› actor took to Instagram and posted a selfie wearing a mask, and requested people to take the most necessary precaution amid the pandemic.

In the picture, Abhishek is seen donning off white shirt and a matching muffler. He accessorised his look with a chunky pair of sunglasses and a blue face mask covering half of his face.

By giving an apt example to people, to keep themselves and their loved ones safe, the ‹Dhoom’ star wrote in the caption, “ to Please, please, PLEASE KEEP YOUR MASK ON!!! If not for yourself, think about your family, elders, friends and loved ones. #maskup #maskon.”

Celebrity followers including filmmaker Nikhil Advani and more than 37,000 fans liked the post within an hour of being posted.

Fans chimed into the comments section to praise the actor’s initiative to spread awareness among people.

One of Instagram users wrote,” Now that is the correct mask (Clapping emoticons) No the one with valves (laughing emoticon) BTS Big Bull rocks! (heart-shaped eyes emoticon).”

On the work front, Abhishek, who was last seen in the biographical drama, ‘The Big Bull’, has ‘Dasvi’ and ‘Bob Biswas’ in the pipeline. 

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I ABSOLUTELY LOVED THE PROCESS: RADHIKA APTE ON HER DIRECTORIAL DEBUT

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Mumbai: Actress Radhika Apte has donned many hats while portraying different roles for her films and now she has taken up direction too. The actress released her directorial debut ‘The Sleepwalkers’ trailer in the lockdown at Palms Spring International Short Fest which won ‘The Best Midnight Short’ award.

Making her directorial debut with the short-film titled The Sleepwalkers, the actress in a recent interview with a leading publication shared, “I had never thought of making films. There was no such plan. I just had the urge to write because sometimes you want to create content that challenges you. Roles that come your way are not necessarily from the space that you want them to come from. I just wanted to write something that interested me. There are things that I passionately want to do. When I bounced off the story to Honey Trehan and Abhishek Chaubey, they decided to make it. I had 10 days for the prep and shoot. When I finished writing, I realised I didn’t want to act in it, but I wanted to direct it. And, I absolutely loved the process.”

Fans of the actress cannot wait to witness the magic Radhika has created, this time being behind the lens. The trailer of her short-film has been showered with lot of appreciation from the audiences.

 Her performance in the recently released OK Computer was widely appreciated and she will be next seen in ‘Mrs Undercover’ playing the role of a housewife who turns Undercover agent.

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