The Chinese Claim
Jin Canrong, a professor of international relations at Beijing’s Renmin University, claimed that China had used a “microwave weapon” to retake land that had been occupied by the Indian Army on the southern bank of the Pangong Tso. He claimed that Chinese forces had turned two strategic hilltops occupied by Indian soldiers “into a microwave oven”, forcing them to retreat, and allowing the positions to be retaken without an exchange of conventional fire. “Within 15 minutes of the weapons being deployed, those occupying the hilltops all began to vomit. They couldn’t stand up, so they fled. This was how we retook the ground,” the professor (does he really exist?) reportedly told his students during a lecture. This report was filed by The Times in the UK and in The Australian. The Indian Army has rejected this report as fake. The matter should have ended there.
Inquiries However, I got inquiries from good and concerned people whether this news was correct and whether the Army was rejecting it as a matter of routine. They were worried about the welfare of our troops. So I did my digging in and found that the whole report to be as fake as the Chinese. Now by merely saying that the report is fake won’t do. I will prove it so. So let us start at the basics.
Dews The Armed forces have been actively and constantly pursuing non-kinetic weapons systems known as Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). DEWs could be based on lasers, particle beams or microwaves. These weapons are devices which deposit requisite energy on targets to achieve a given level of damage. Alternatively, every target needs a certain level of energy transfer over a period of time to be damaged. Hence the DEW must produce much more energy at source, since a significant amount is lost in propagation. They tend to be bulky and need large power generators. The first thing one must understand is that DEWs are not hand held systems.
This story is all about microwave weapons and henceforth I shall stick to them. Microwaves are a type of electromagnetic radiation, having a much longer wavelength and much lower frequency than light. Like all electromagnetic radiation, microwaves travel at the speed of light. Microwave frequencies lie in the range 0.1–100 GHz, and the associated wavelengths lie in the range 100–0.1 cm. Oxygen and water vapor can absorb radiation in the microwave region. Liquid water interacts well with microwaves. The interaction between microwaves and water is employed in microwave ovens. Since water is a major constituent of organic matter, microwaves are absorbed in foods placed in the oven and heat them. Yet they are not absorbed in ceramic dishes, which don’t contain water. In this way, the food is heated while the dish itself remains cool. Microwaves are emitted from a directional antenna. Microwaves travel along line of sight. If the object is directly not visible, it is not affected. Due to the large wavelength of microwaves, they spread much more than light for given aperture sizes. It means that their effective ranges are limited. Rain and water vapor restricts microwave propagation. If a laser beam is like a bullet shot from a rifle, a microwave beam is more like the shot from a shotgun. Through divergence, the energy spreads with distance, and the effective range is less. Microwaves are unsuited for the precision destruction of threatening targets. Rather, they are ideal for an array of targets, hoping that most will receive a dose of energy sufficient to exploit internal vulnerabilities and result in target negation even at intensities below that required for physical destruction. Microwave based DEWs are generally best suited for soft targets having built-in vulnerabilities which microwaves can exploit. Their best potential use is against electronics.
Microwave DEWs in Service
The Active Denial System (ADS), is a non-lethal DEW developed by Raytheon in 2004 for the US military. It is designed for area denial, perimeter security and crowd control. It works on microwaves being directed at targets which heat their surface, such as the skin of targeted human beings. The microwaves incite movement in the fat and water molecules located just below the human skin surface, making the target feel like they are burning from the inside. As soon as the target steps away from the ray, the pain ceases, purportedly leaving no damage to nerve endings and blood vessels, which are located deeper below the epidermis. The ADS was deployed in 2010 with the United States military in Afghanistan, but was not used in combat. In 2010, it was evaluated by the Los Angeles Police Department for prisoner control. As of 2014, the ADS was only a vehicle-mounted weapon, though U.S. Marines and police were both working on portable versions. The system can be seen on the YouTube links @ https://www. youtube. com/watch?v= kzG4oEutPbA and https:// www.youtube.com/ watch?v=u9p5naCkz2w. The Chinese have a similar system called Poly WB-1. It is a non-lethal microwave projector that can be used for crowd dispersal, by making its targets feel like their skin is on fire. The WB-1, presented at the Airshow China 2014 in Zhuhai in November 2014, had a range of about 80 meters, though it can be expanded to 1 Km. However achieving ranges of 1 Km means considerable extra power. Extra power is always at a premium in High Altitudes. The system can be seen on the You Tube @ https://in.video.search. yahoo.com/search/video?fr= mcafee&p=Poly+WB-1+you+ tube#id=1&vid=74bb32e6867 50948e2452890c8a97466&a ction=click
If you have seen the videos you will realise that any microwave system is based on a huge truck/platform and needs a large amount of power(200 KW). It has a huge silhouette and outline which is unmistakable. It has limited ranges and a limited beam width. To be effective, the system has to be quite close to the target. Most importantly the DEWs are non-lethal with only momentary effect. The effect fades the moment you are out of the direct line of the microwave beam. If the Microwave weapon produced such drastic results (as claimed), that troops occupying two hill tops fled, then there are two companies involved. Then at 100 least casualties–with symptoms of severe vomiting and burning – would have come to light. My authentic sources- operational and medical — report no such casualties.
Secondly, our troops would have reported having seen an ungainly vehicle closing in. No such vehicle was sighted. Very importantly, the vehicle needs a road to come as close as 100m of own positions. All hill tops occupied by us would have access through an op track which would have been barricaded at the first instance. Hence the story fails here. However let us take it forward. Any two hill tops are at least a few Km apart. If the claim is true, the Chinese would have had to use more than one DEW. In which case they would have made a great show of it. More over if two hill tops were vacated, the Chinese would have been all over the town and media as to how Indian Troops (scared of the ten feet tall Chinese) had decamped seeing the might of PLA!
The Microwave DEW is a line of sight weapon with limited range and beam width of a human being (at best). It would have to be aimed and fired from a lower height towards men at higher heights and defiladed to the line of fire. No way these chaps at heights can be hit. If the effect was as claimed, each man had to be targeted steadily for at least 15 minutes. If you step out of line, you are safe. Logically, if a man senses danger in combat, he hits the ground! The moment he does that he is safe from the ‘Chinese Microwave’. This whole affair looks like a bedtime story when you are travelling on the silk route and gazing at the stars above. Impossible to execute unless you are high on cannabis. There is no way this weapon can target 200 men on a hilltop together except in the drunken haze of Shanghai Waterfront bars after six drinks. Also the men on hill tops would be tactically deployed and spread. Surely they were not waiting all bunched up together to be microwaved by the great Chinese Wonder Weapons!
Also think. The heights involved are 4000-5000 m. The hill tops would have been awfully cold. We all know that all machines underperform by about 30-40 % at such altitudes. This Chinese vehicle portable microwave oven is no exception. My guess is that even if our men had been targeted by Jin Canarong’s imaginary Chinese Nobel Prize winning vision, it would have only served to warm them. They were otherwise freezing with cold. ‘Good Open Air Heater’.
Very importantly, the claim is that this entire Microwave episode took place in the last week of Aug. However after that the Chinese and PLA have gone all over town cribbing that India should vacate the South Pangong Tso Heights otherwise they will attack us. Which they have not had the guts to do till date. On the other hand India has gone and occupied more heights above Finger 4 in Sep. If the ‘microwave theory’ is true and good, then it should have imposed caution on us and we should not have expanded to occupy other heights.
As of now, India is occupying all the features as I had explained in my Sino- Indian Logjam series @ https:// www.gunnersshot.com/ 2020/11/ sino-indian-logamchinese-three-card.html. No one has vacated anything. This entire episode is a fake effort. It was probably tailored to spin a positive yarn to domestic audiences through foreign media. That is why it was released in the UK and Australia. The Chinese will now doctor even those reports to tell domestic audiences that the foreign media has reported that the great Chinese war machinery has microwaved India! The Chinese desperation tells a story and a morale: Do not vacate Kailash range at any cost. All this is a ploy.
Lt Gen P.R. Shankar was India’s DG Artillery. He is highly decorated and qualified with vast operational experience. He contributed significantly to the modernisation and indigenisation of Artillery. He is now a Professor in the Aerospace Dept of IIT Madras and is involved in applied research for defence technology. His other articles can be read on his blog www.gunnersshot.com
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Defence Ministers of India and Vietnam hold talks to strengthen defence relations
Defence Minister Rajnath Singh and Minister of National Defence of Socialist Republic of Vietnam General Ngo Xuan Lich held bilateral talks via video-conferencing, on Thursday. During the talks, both the ministers reaffirmed the strong India-Vietnam defence cooperation which is a key pillar of Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the two countries. They discussed various ongoing projects and the future trajectory of bilateral defence engagements. The Defence Ministers expressed satisfaction that despite the Covid-19 situation defence exchanges between both Armed Forces have maintained a positive momentum. Both the Ministers discussed collaboration in defence industry capability building, training and cooperation in UN peacekeeping operations.
In a further step towards deeper bilateral cooperation, both sides signed an Implementing Arrangement for cooperation in the field of Hydrography between National Hydrographic Office, India and Vietnam Hydrographic Office in the presence of the two Ministers. The Arrangement will enable sharing of Hydrographic data and assist in production of navigational charts by both sides. Raksha Mantri underlined Prime Minister’s vision of Aatmanirbhar Bharat for enhancing self-reliance including defence industries. He outlined that a strong and self-reliant India shall positively contribute to capacity building of friendly partner countries like Vietnam. He urged for closer defence industry cooperation between India and Vietnam by concluding an institutionalised framework Agreement in the near future. Raksha Mantri appreciated Vietnam’s innovative and successful leadership of defence-related events in ASEAN during its presidency of ASEAN despite the COVID-19 pandemic situation.
Vietnamese Defence Minister thanked the Raksha Mantri for the assistance by Indian Armed Forces in capacity building of Vietnamese Defence Forces especially in the field of Human Resource development. Rajnath Singh conveyed India’s willingness to enhance the scope and level of training for all three services of Vietnam Defence forces in Indian Defence Institutes. Vietnamese Defence Minister also invited the Singh for ADMM Plus meeting being hosted by Vietnam on 10 December 2020, through virtual mode.
PAKISTAN: FOREVER THE BRIDESMAID, NEVER THE BRIDE?
Pakistan would do well to continuously re-evaluate its status in the Chinese calculus and make efforts to reduce potential China-Iran bonhomie.
China and Iran are ostensibly moving towards what is being touted as a “comprehensive partnership”, if a leaked agreement between the two countries is to be believed. This agreement envisages potential Chinese investments of up to $400 billion in Iran. Analysts around the world, including in Pakistan, have already dedicated copious amounts of ink on assessing what impact this agreement would have on various stakeholders. What is confounding is the evident optimism, bordering on gullibility, among some self-professed ‘experts’ of the so-called Pakistani intelligentsia. One would think that history has taught Pakistan a lesson about being circumspect when examining the effects of such international moves on their security and well-being. Alas, they seem to suffer an affliction for self-congratulatory assessments in all facets of life, with breathless acolytes of political affiliations providing ‘expert analyses’ on television about issues from national security to the mundane.
Oft repeated is the maxim that if one does not learn from history, we are doomed to repeat it. For instance, the disdain with which one-time best friend USA treats Pakistan today is evident from frequent foreign policy utterances by the highest levels of US Government. As recently as 22 September, William Todd, President Trump’s nominee as US Ambassador to Pakistan informed the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee that “Pakistan must take sustained and irreversible action against terrorism”. Pakistanis never miss an opportunity to highlight that the US professes deep friendship with them when it is expedient and, subsequently drops them like a hot potato. If Pakistani policy makers do not take lessons from their own history, their relationship with China could go down the same road. Chinese investment in CPEC is estimated to be anywhere between $46 billion to $70 billion. This prima facie appears to be a huge amount, and should portend extensive development in Pakistan. It should however also be viewed as an additional tactic to glue Pakistan with iron brother, China. However, Pakistan was recently shocked when a leaked agreement indicated that Chinese investment in Iran under the ‘Silk Road Economic Belt’ (SREB) is in the range of $400 billion, nearly six-fold of the prospective investment in Pakistan. The agreement includes development of the Jask Port in Iran, which is a mere few hundred kilometres from Gwadar. There is also indication of investment in the electricity sector in Iran, to aid it in eventually exporting electricity across the region. What then of Pakistan’s vision of self-sufficiency in power generation through the Thar Coal Project under CPEC? What then of Gwadar becoming a major hub of shipping in the region? What of the insurgents operating with impunity against Pakistan from across the border in Iran?
Optimists such as Dr Muhammad Tayyab Safdar of the University of Virginia tend to see positive outcomes for Pakistan in the China-Iran agreement. He speaks of Pakistan becoming the conduit for Chinese trade and energy in his elucidation for the Diplomat. He also mentions some issues highlighted in this article, but sheds a positive light on them, without specifics as to how the agreement will aid in Pakistan’s power generation, or how Jask will foment growth for Gwadar? Is Pakistan, then, to be a mere conduit or a major partner?
The strategic community in Pakistan is presently finding its feet in the rapidly evolving geo-strategic paradigm, post pandemic. As the world realigns, Pakistan is likely be caught flat-footed. Recent strained relations with Saudi Arabia, traditionally, one of its greatest supporters, followed by a Chinese drift towards Iran could be a precursor to Pakistan’s strategic inconsequentiality in regional dynamics. The Abraham Accords have also isolated Pakistan which does not have diplomatic relations with Israel. Coupled with their Turkish-leanings, it is very likely that Pakistan will soon be distanced by UAE and other Middle East nations. Saudi Arabia’s new 20 Riyal banknote issued in October this year has removed Gilgit-Baltistan from Pakistan’s map, a move clearly intended to humiliate Pakistan on the world stage, and particularly in the OIC.
Pakistan would do well to continuously re-evaluate its status in the Chinese calculus and make efforts to reduce potential China-Iran bonhomie, particularly if it comes at their expense. Pakistan’s response would be based on the axiom: ‘There are no permanent friends or enemies—only permanent interests’. Pakistan’s interests, for now, lie in making potential benefits of the CPEC more lucrative to China than the SREB. Else, Pakistan runs the risk of being used… yet again. Maybe it is time for Pakistan to extricate itself from its fool’s paradise and engage in some actual realpolitik, lest it give credence to the adage of forever being a bridesmaid, never the bride.
Days after successful Malabar 2020, three back-to-back exercises by Indian Navy
While the Indian Navy was hosting the most talked about exercise of the maritime domain Malabar 2020 with the Navies of America, Japan and Australia, the multiple ships of the Indian Navy were already preparing to participate in at least three more exercises, in a week.
EXERCISE SIMBEX-20 IN ANDAMAN SEA
Indian Navy (IN) hosted the 27th edition of India-Singapore Bilateral Maritime Exercise SIMBEX-20 from 23 to 25 November 2020 in Andaman Sea. The SIMBEX series of exercises between IN and Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN), being conducted annually since 1994, are aimed at enhancing mutual inter-operability and imbibing best practices from each other. The scope and complexity of these exercises has increased steadily over the past two decades to include advanced naval drills covering a wide spectrum of maritime operations. The 2020 edition of SIMBEX witnessed participation by Indian Navy ships including destroyer Rana with integral Chetak helicopter and indigenously built corvettes Kamorta and Karmuk. In addition, IN submarine Sindhuraj and P8I maritime reconnaissance aircraft also participated in the exercise. RSN was represented by the ‘Formidable’ Class frigates ‘Intrepid’ and ‘Steadfast’ with integral S70B helicopter and ‘Endurance’ Class Landing Ship Tank ‘Endeavour’ in the exercise.
The exercise, conducted as a ‘non-contact, at sea only’ exercise in view of Covid-19 pandemic, highlights the high degree of mutual trust and confidence, synergy and cooperation in the maritime domain between the two friendly navies and maritime neighbours. SIMBEX-20 witnessed the two friendly navies participate in advanced surface, anti-air warfare and anti-submarine warfare exercises including weapon firings, over three days of intensive joint operations at sea. SIMBEX series of exercises exemplify the high level of coordination and convergence of views between India and Singapore, particularly in the maritime domain, towards enhancing the overall maritime security in the region and highlight their commitment to a rules-based international order.
EXERCISE SITMEX-20 IN ANDAMAN SEA
Indian Navy (IN) Ships including indigenously built ASW corvette Kamorta and missile corvette Karmuk participated in the 2nd edition of India, Singapore and Thailand Trilateral Maritime Exercise SITMEX-20, from 21 to 22 November 20 in Andaman Sea. The first edition of SITMEX, hosted by Indian Navy, was conducted off Port Blair in September 2019. The SITMEX series of exercises are conducted to enhance mutual interoperability and imbibing best practices between IN, Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) and Royal Thai Navy (RTN). The 2020 edition of the exercise was hosted by RSN.
RSN was represented by the ‘Formidable’ Class frigate ‘Intrepid’ and ‘Endurance’ Class Landing Ship Tank ‘Endeavour’ and RTN by the ‘Chao Phraya’ Class frigate ‘Kraburi’ in the exercise. The exercise conducted as a ‘non-contact, at sea only’ exercise in view of COVID-19 pandemic, highlights growing synergy, coordination and cooperation in the maritime domain between the three friendly navies and maritime neighbours. The two days of maritime drills witnessed the three navies participate in a variety of exercises including naval manoeuvres, surface warfare exercises and weapon firings. Besides improving interoperability between the friendly navies, SITMEX series of exercise also aim to strengthen mutual confidence and develop common understanding and procedures towards enhancing the overall maritime security in the region.
30TH INDO-THAI COORDINATED PATROL
The 30th edition of India-Thailand Coordinated Patrol (Indo-Thai CORPAT) between the Indian Navy and the Royal Thai Navy was held from 18-20 November 2020. Indian Naval Ship (INS) Karmuk, an indigenously built Missile Corvette and His Majesty’s Thailand Ship (HTMS) Kraburi, a Chao Phraya Class Frigate along with Dornier Maritime Patrol Aircraft from both the navies participated in the CORPAT. As part of Government of India’s vision of SAGAR (Security And Growth for All in the Region), the Indian Navy has been involved in assisting countries in the Indian Ocean Region with EEZ Surveillance, Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR), and other capacity building and capability-enhancement activities, on their request. India and Thailand have especially enjoyed a close and friendly relationship covering a wide spectrum of activities and interactions, which have strengthened over the years.
To reinforce maritime links, the two navies have been carrying out CORPAT along their International Maritime Boundary Line twice a year since 2005, with the aim of keeping this vital part of the Indian Ocean safe and secure for commercial shipping and international trade. CORPAT builds up the understanding and interoperability between navies and facilitates institution of measures to prevent and suppress Illegal Unreported Unregulated (IUU) fishing, drug trafficking, maritime terrorism, armed robbery and piracy. It further enhances the operational synergy by exchange of information for prevention of smuggling, illegal immigration and for conduct of SAR operations at sea. The 30th Indo-Thai CORPAT contributed towards Indian Navy’s efforts to consolidate interoperability and forge strong bonds of friendship with the Royal Thai Navy.
Coast Guard busy handling Cyclone Nivar rescue and relief operations
Indian Coast Guard is ready in all respects to undertake search, rescue and Relief operations in the aftermath of the Cyclone ‘NIVAR’. ICG has deployed about 8-9 ships and two Dornier aircraft every day since 22 Nov 20 on the Eastern Seaboard to issue warnings in vernacular language to the fishermen and mariners at sea of the impending adverse weather condition due to the passage of ‘NIVAR’ and requesting them to return to nearest ports for safety. The ICG has so far escorted about2500 fishing boats operating at sea to nearest ports and all Merchant vessels at Port anchorages were also advised to keep clear from the path of cyclone.
Indian Coast Guard commenced its pre-emptive actions with the issuance of Advisory to the local administration, fisheries and fishermen association about formation of low pressure over the south east Bay of Bengal. In addition, Ports were requested to shift the vessels at anchorage to safer locations well before the arrival of the cyclone. Navtex warnings and International safety Net (ISN) were activated with 6 hourly request to the merchant vessels transiting the area to advise the fishermen to return to harbour.23 Coast Guard Disaster Relief Teams (DRTs) with inflatable boats, Life buoys and lifejackets has been kept standby all along the Tamil Nadu and East Coast for undertaking Disaster response operations. Medical teams & ambulances have also been kept standby for swift mobilisation.ICG ships and aircraft continue to carry out area patrol for Search and rescue operation post passage of the cyclone.The pre-emptive actions initiated by the ICG has ensured ‘No Loss of life and property at sea’ during the cyclone. ICG, true to its motto ‘Vyam Rakshamah” meaning “We Protect” has saved more than 123 lives at sea during and aftermath of cyclone NIVAR.
1,971-km cycle expedition to celebrate golden jubilee of the 1971 war
To commemorate the golden jubilee victory celebrations and to pay homage to the sacrifices made by the soldiers during the 1971 war, a 1,971 km ‘Swarnim Vijay Varsh Cyclothon’ across Gujarat and Rajasthan, is being steered under the aegis of The Konark Corps of Indian Army. The Cyclothon will be undertaken by the relay teams of 20 participants each of the various Army Formations across the two states.The expedition was flagged off on 26 November from anoutpost near Lakhpat by Honorary Captain Gumansinh Jhala, an 87 year old war veteran who had participated in both Indo-Pak wars of 1965 & 1971, then serving with 7 Grenadiers. During this leg, the team traversed through the vast expanse of Kutch, cycling a distance of 200 Kilometers across Hajipir, Khavda and culminated at Bhuj.
Meanwhile as part of commencement of the ‘Swarnim Vijay Varsh’ anEx-Servicemen Outreach Program was organized by Bald Eagle Brigade at Bhuj. Medical facilities were extended by the doctors of Bald Eagle Brigade & GKGH-Kutch. Representatives of Zila Sainik Board, Kutch, SBI Bhuj & District Commissioner, Kutch were present to redress grievances of Veterans & Kin of Ex-Servicemen, as also disseminate welfare schemes of Ex Servicemen Contributory Health Scheme.Mrs Sonal M Gadhvi, a Veer Naari from Madhapar, Bhuj presently teaching at Army Public School, wife of Late Naik Mansingh Rajde Gadhvi of Mahar Regiment who made the supreme sacrifice while serving in Operation Rakshak in year 2004, was felicitated during the Outreach Camp by Commander of Bald Eagle Brigade.The commencement of the Swarnim Vijay Varsh Celebrations will foster team spirit, adventurous and bold outlook and improve morale and robustness of all elements of Armed Forces.
Indian Navy completes refit of Maldivian ship CGS Huravee
Naval dockyard Visakhapatnam completed the refit of Maldivian Coast Guard Ship MNDF CGS Huravee. Rear Admiral Sreekumar Nair, Admiral Superintendent handed over the ship to the Commanding Officer Major Hussain Rasheed at Visakhapatnam on Wednesday. Colonel Ahmed Thohir, Defence Advisor of Maldives to India, attended the ceremony wherein he conveyed the satisfaction of the Maldives Government and also read a message from the Minister of Defence, Government of Maldives on the excellent conduct of refit amidst the pandemic and thanked the Government of India, Indian Navy and HQENC for smooth and safe completion of the refit.
The ship arrived in Visakhapatnam for its refit on 22 February 2020. Notwithstanding the limitations imposed due to Covid-19 pandemic since 20 March, dedicated efforts and careful planning & execution of works by Naval Dockyard with adequate safety enabled major refurbishment/replacement of main propulsion and auxiliary equipment.
Renewal of ship’s power generation equipment has provided a major fillip to the ship’s endurance and capability. Further, several systems and equipment were overhauled successfully to ensure better performance and sustainability of the ship for service with the Maldives Coast Guard during the upcoming operational cycle. The ship was put through extensive harbour and sea trials, to achieve full operational readiness.MNDF CGS Huravee (originally INS Tillanchang) is an indigenously built Trinkat class patrol vessel constructed at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers, Kolkata in 2001. Subsequently, it was gifted to Maldives by the Government of India in 2006 to strengthen the partnership between the two nations and to cooperate further for the maritime safety of the Indian Ocean Region.Rear Admiral Sreekumar Nair, Admiral Superintendent of Naval Dockyard, Visakhapatnam was the Chief Guest and addressed the gathering on the occasion.
He highlighted the stringent measures incorporated during the refit to ensure that the crew and the Yard workforce remained free from Covid-19 infection whilst meeting the refit targets.
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