Washington [US], March 11 (ANI): The findings of a new study by researchers at Missouri State University and American University examined the factors associated with the use of the death penalty at the county level to provide a fuller picture of what issues influence court outcomes.
Broad political, economic, and social factors influence disciplinary punishment. In particular, over the last half-century, such considerations have shaped jurisdictions’ use of the death penalty, which has declined considerably since the 1990s.
The study published in Criminology, a publication of the American Society of Criminology, concludes that partisan politics, religious fundamentalism, and economic threat influenced local decisions about the death penalty. The study also found that the size of the African American population, which prior state-level studies have found to be associated with the use of the death penalty, was not directly associated with the recent decline in the use of this punishment.
“It is essential to examine the local political environment and the composition of jurisdictional populations to capture the processes that influence local trial court outcomes,” suggests Ethan Amidon, associate professor of criminology and criminal justice at Missouri State University, who led the study. “Although we found support for a number of perspectives that have been identified in prior state-level studies, our findings indicate that these relationships are more complex when considered at the local, decision-making level.”
In the last 30 years, national reliance on the death penalty has declined across all states–from a late 20th-century peak of 330 death sentences in 1994 to 32 death sentences in 2016. Most counties have also used the death penalty less.
In this study, researchers examined a variety of issues associated with the use of death sentences across three decennial periods from 1990 to 2010. They studied information from 2,572 counties or county equivalents, using information from the U.S. Census Bureau’s decennial reports and its American Community Survey; they also considered information from a database that contains death sentences by county from 1991 to 2017. Prior research has studied this information primarily from a state perspective.
Among the factors examined were the percentages of people in each county who voted for the Republican presidential candidate, were religious fundamentalists (based on church membership data), were of different races and ethnicities, and were unemployed. The study measured each county’s tradition of vigilantism by tallying the lynching rate in each jurisdiction.
To control for factors that could influence the use of the death penalty, the study considered several variables, including each county’s number of homicides, rate of violent crime (homicides, robberies, rapes, and aggravated assaults), and rate of property crime (burglaries, larcenies, and car thefts). The study also considered total population and income inequality, as well as rates of divorce and poverty in each county.
The researchers concluded that several factors are associated with county-level reliance on the death penalty:
– The degree of public support for Republican presidential candidates was directly associated with greater reliance on the death penalty over the study period. Given that the death penalty has declined over the last three decades, this means that the decrease in the use of this punishment was more gradual in jurisdictions with a growth in support for Republican presidential candidates, who tend to espouse law and order positions.
– Counties with larger Protestant fundamentalist populations imposed death sentences to a greater degree, on average, than counties with smaller such populations. This contributes to a degree of persistence in the death penalty in jurisdictions where citizens remain strongly committed to fundamentalist ideologies.
– The size of economically marginalized populations within counties was directly related to greater reliance on the death penalty. This relationship inverted once the size of the unemployed population reached a tipping point.
– Neither the size of a county’s African American and Hispanic populations nor its history of vigilantism was directly related to its jurisdictional use of the death penalty. However, the size of the African American population was associated indirectly with reliance on the death penalty in terms of its influence on jurisdictional unemployment.
The authors note their study is missing data on factors such as the percentage of religious fundamentalists and crime rate variables, and a few of the measurement procedures used by some of their sources changed across the study period, including those that provided crime data.
“Even as reliance on capital punishment has waned in the early 21st century, the nature and severity of penal punishments have continued to be shaped by the broader social, political, and economic landscapes in which they are immersed,” according to John Eassey, a researcher in residence in the Justices Programs Office at American University, who coauthored the study. (ANI)
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JANHVI JOINS VIRAL ‘UP’ CHALLENGE, FLAUNTS HER DANCING SKILLS
NEW DELHI: Bollywood actor Janhvi Kapoor, who is currently holidaying in Maldives, on Monday joined the viral ‘Up’ challenge bandwagon and shared a video flaunting her killer dance moves. Janhvi took to her Instagram handle and shared a video dancing to the hit Cardi B song, along with the caption, “Missing the Filmfare stage so the poolside will have to do for now.” In the video, the ‘Gunjan Saxena’ actor, while dressed in a white top and blue denim could be seen matching steps with her friend, who was dressed in a blue bikini, paired with colourful yellow and pink pants. The duo was dancing next to a swimming pool, where they delivered an energetic performance on the upbeat song.
On the work front, Janhvi was last seen in ‘Roohi’, produced by Dinesh Vijan and Mrighdeep Singh Lamba. The film also starred Rajkummar Rao and Varun Sharma.
The horror-comedy became the first film to arrive in theatres after the government allowed cinema halls nationwide to operate at full capacity from February 1 with safety protocols put in place.
LOCKDOWN DOESN’T MEAN GIVING UP ON FITNESS: KAREENA
NEW DELHI: New mom Kareena Kapoor shared an inspiring post on Instagram, giving importance on the necessity to stay fit during the lockdown. On Sunday, the 40-year-old actress shared a photograph which showed that she walked 5,605 steps (5.11 km) within a few hours.
Kareena’s fitness mantra was loud and clear: “Lockdown doesn›t mean giving up,» she wrote in her caption. Kareena›s sister-in-law Saba Ali Khan commented on her post. She wrote: “Motivation… Now to try movement! Wish me luck! LOL. Stay safe and fit.”
Kareena and Saif Ali Khan welcomed a son on 21 February. “We have been blessed with a baby boy. Mom and baby are safe and healthy. Thank you to our well-wishers for their love and support,” Saif said in a statement.
Kareena and Saif married in 2012 after dating for a few years. They announced their second pregnancy last August. They are co-stars of films like Omkara, Agent Vinod, Kurbaan and Tashan. The actress announced her pregnancy memoir titled The Kareena Kapoor Khan Pregnancy Bible, on Taimur’s fourth birthday in December last year.
KANGANA RANAUT CELEBRATES PARENTS’ WEDDING ANNIVERSARY
NEW DELHI: Bollywood star Kangana Ranaut, on Monday, celebrated her parents’ wedding anniversary by sharing a picture of them on her social media and narrating the story of how they met.
The ‘Queen’ actor took to her Twitter handle and shared a rare throwback picture of her parents from their wedding day along with a heartfelt note that read, “Today is the wedding anniversary of my parents, growing up they lied to us that it was a conventional arranged marriage it’s only much later nani told us they had a raging affair, papa saw mom at a bus stand returning from college, took that bus every day till she noticed him.”
Narrating her parents, Asha Ranaut and Amardeep Ranaut’s love story, in a subsequent tweet she elaborated, “Papa saw mom at a bus stand returning from college, took that bus every day till she noticed him. When papa sent proposal, Nana ji (grandfather) brutally rejected cos papa didn’t have good reputation. Nana had selected a groom with government job for mom. She was his favourite and lovingly called her Guddi but mom fought all odds and convinced Nana. Thanks for that, happy anniversary.”
HUMA QURESHI RECALLS FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH ZACK SNYDER
NEW DELHI: Bollywood star Huma Qureshi, who will soon be making her Hollywood debut with the upcoming movie ‘Army of the Dead’, recently recalled her first encounter with the film’s director Zack Snyder.
During a recent special panel on YouTube, which hosted the female star cast of the upcoming Netflix movie, Huma, an avid admirer of Snyder recalled meeting him for the first time and said, “He was wearing a white shirt and had his camera on and I am like the white shirt is going to get dirty.” She recollected that it was a dream come true opportunity for Huma when while visiting the US, she gave an audition for some other work but instead got a chance to work with the legend himself.
Snyders ‘Army of the Dead’ takes place following a zombie outbreak that leaves Las Vegas in ruins and walled off from the rest of the world. When Scott Ward, a former zombie war hero, who is now flipping burgers on the outskirts of the town he now calls home is approached by casino boss Bly Tanaka, with the ultimate proposition to break into the zombie-infested quarantined zone and retrieve USD 200 million, that is sitting in a vault beneath the strip before the city is nuked by the government in 32 hours.
BHUMI TURNS ‘COVID WARRIOR’, OFFERS HELP TO THOSE IN ‘GENUINE NEED’
NEW DELHI: After recently recovering from the novel coronavirus, Bollywood star Bhumi Pednekar on Monday took up the mantle of a “COVID warrior” and extended support to her fans and followers on social media.
The ‘Bala’ actor took to her Instagram handle and asked her fans to DM her if they are in genuine need of medical supply. Sharing a statement Bhumi wrote, “#COVIDWARRIOR Dear All, As we move into the second wave of COVID-19 across India, I have created a highlight where I will be identifying resources to enable facilitation & access to medical supplies, plasma request and donors as the case may be.”
She asked fans to support her and continued, “While I am trying my level best to verify the numbers/contacts which are shared with me on a rampant & daily basis, there might be some numbers which may turn out to be fake. In the event that you find any information here not helpful/fake, please do let me know & I will immediately remove the same.”
Instilling the people with hope, she added, “This initiative is my small contribution to the huge battle that lies ahead to us. Please be patient & don’t lose hope! We’re in this together. Love, Bhumi.”
Bhumi had tested positive for COVID-19 on April 5 and was under home quarantine until she finally tested negative on April 17. The second wave has infected many people, and the number of positive cases has been rapidly rising.
IT’S A SCHEDULE WRAP FOR KRITI SANON FOR ‘BHEDIYA’
NEW DELHI: Bollywood actor Varun Dhawan, on Monday, announced Kriti Sanon’s schedule wrap for their upcoming horror-comedy flick ‘Bhediya’ while bidding adieu to the Ziro shooting set of the movie.
Varun hopped on to his Instagram handle and shared two adorable BTS pictures featuring him with Kriti at the exquisite location of their shoot set. While the first picture sees the lead hero holding her heroine on his back, the second one shows them flashing their big smiles for the camera. To address Kriti, Varun used the lyric of the song ‘Kya lagti hai haye Rabba’ from 1998 Govinda’s rom-com film ‘Dulhe Raja’ in the caption.
Continuing with it, he added, “Bahut maaza ayaa apka saath @kritisanon (Had a lot of fun with you) #wolfpack. It’s a sched wrap for kriti on #BHEDIYA as we say bye to ziro. Will miss you both”.
The horror-comedy drama ‘Bhediya’ will mark the ‘Badlapur’ star and ‘Heropanti’ star’s third collaboration with each other after sharing screen spaces in 2015 rom-com ‘Dilwale’ and 2019 ‘Kalank’.
The film which went on floors earlier in March at Arunachal Pradesh will bring together the dynamic duo of producer Dinesh Vijan and director Amar Kaushik, who also helmed the 2018 blockbuster movie ‘Stree’.
Starring Kriti Sanon, Varun Dhawan, Abhishek Banerjee, and Deepak Dobriyal, the story is written by National Award Winner, Niren Bhatt who also wrote intriguing scripts for ‘Bala’, ‘Made In China’, ‘Wrong Side Raju’. The film is slated to release in cinemas on April 14, 2022.
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