PAKISTAN’S MISINFORMATION WAR AGAINST INDIA TURNS UGLIER - The Daily Guardian
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PAKISTAN’S MISINFORMATION WAR AGAINST INDIA TURNS UGLIER

Fake news posts, misleading images, fabricated social media accounts and provocative hashtags are all part of Pakistan’s arsenal for spreading propaganda online and controlling the minds of the Indian masses.

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“If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it,” Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s propaganda minister, had once said, “people will eventually come to believe it.” After 75 years of his death, Pakistan still implements the same for its misinformation war against India. With cheaper Internet, social media has landed in the hands of the common people of both the countries, making it easier than ever before to spread misinformation and manipulate the minds of citizens.

After India’s successful surgical and air strikes, Pakistan, out of frustration, is carrying out propaganda strikes against the former now. The Pakistani establishment spreads and supports the spread of misinformation against India to malign its image. It wants to portray India as a ruthless country which oppresses and targets ethnic minorities (especially Kashmiris) and religious minorities (especially Muslims). Along with this so-called oppression, it wants to take advantage of India’s internal fault-lines too and censor anti-Pakistani accounts as well.

In February this year, amidst the peak of the anti-CAA protests in India, Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan tweeted a video, through which he claimed that the “Indian police” was carrying out a “pogrom against Muslims in UP”. However, the video was related to an incident in Bangladesh, and Khan had to delete his tweet within a few minutes of posting it. Pakistan’s federal minister for information and broadcasting, Fawad Chaudhry, also falsely quoted Navjot Sidhu as saying that Pakistan is a “second home”, in 2018. These examples are just the tip of the iceberg, but it is not a mystery where they got these materials.

Pakistani propaganda is not just limited to social media. Pakistan has utilised fake images at international platforms too. In 2017, Pakistan’s permanent representative at the United Nations passed an image from Gaza as Jammu & Kashmir’s to show so-called police brutality.

After several failed efforts, Pakistan has also taken the refuge of making fake or impersonating social media accounts to spoil India’s ties with friendly nations. Just about five months ago, when both countries were fighting the initial phase of the Covid-19 pandemic, a surge of new accounts on Twitter was seen. These accounts were posting unrelated videos, photos, and news from other parts of world and dubbing them to show “Islamophobia in India” in order to provoke the Gulf nations to take steps against India. On every alternate day, there were related hashtags—including #IslamophobiaInIndia, #ModiHitler and #HindutvaVsArabWorld—trending on the platform.

INNEFU, an information security R&D startup, published an open-source intelligence (OSINT) report spanning 193 pages, with the title “Anti-India campaign in Arab Countries” in April 2020. The intentions of this malicious campaign, as per this report, were to show the “victimisation of Muslims in India by Indians” and “victimisation of Muslims in the aforementioned countries [Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Oman] by Indians”. The report found that 6,493 accounts, which were likely part of bot and troll families, were created in the last 15 days to increase the reach of the ‘Arab v/s India’ campaign. In addition, it also revealed that many hashtags portraying the RSS and India in poor light originated in Pakistan. The whole campaign, the report says, was started when Pakistan-based accounts began claiming Indians to be “Islamophobic”.

Coming to India’s internal fault-lines, Khalistan is one of the biggest insurgencies which India has faced, apart from Kashmir’s. India has been successful in wiping out Khalistani militants from the land of Punjab, but Pakistan’s ISI has been trying to revive the insurgency through social media. There are reports which state that the ISI is using proxies like “Sikhs For Justice” to show that Sikhs are oppressed in India and want secession.

The next point is about Pakistan censoring its critics. It seems that the Islamic republic has a larger plan for this purpose. On 1 September, Stanford University’s Internet Observatory body published a report, “Reporting for Duty: How A Network of Pakistan-Based Accounts Leveraged Mass Reporting to Silence Critics”. Facebook recently suspended a network (profiles, groups and pages) which was misusing its features, and the report has been prepared with the data shared with them by Facebook. According to this report, the network had Facebook groups in which links of “blasphemous” posts were being shared to ‘mass report’ it. The operator behind the network had also developed a Google Chrome extension to perform mass reporting of anti-Islam and anti-Pakistan posts on Facebook. The report also found that his profile states that he has worked with “agencies” (implying the ISI or Pakistani military). There were, the report notes, multiple groups operated by the network, which had names in English, Urdu, Punjabi and Hindi. The content shared varied across the groups, from pro-Pakistan to anti-India, from pro-ISI to anti-BJP material. Surprisingly, as per this report, pro-India (and even pro-Indian Army) groups and pages were also managed by them, probably to share subtle propaganda. As usual, groups related to Khalistan were also there!

Coming back to Goebbels’ suggestion of ‘to tell a bigger lie and to repeat it’, multiple reports suggest that Pakistan is fully prepared for it. “If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group’s mind, it is now possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without knowing it,” Edward Bernays, a pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, had rightly said. India has empowered its citizens with Internet and smartphones but a bigger challenge is still at our doorstep, which is to avoid our masses being controlled by a notorious neighbour.

The writer is an engineer, an observer of South Asian politics and a fellow at the think-tank, BVM.

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RUSSIA WILL ACCEPT CONDITIONAL HANDOVER OF CYBER CRIMINALS TO US, SAYS PRESIDENT PUTIN

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Three days before the US-Russia summit, Russian President Vladimir Putin on Sunday said that the two countries need to engage in a constructive dialogue and establish mechanisms for interaction as there are areas in which Moscow and Washington can cooperate.

“[We need] to restore our personal contacts, relations, establish a direct dialogue, create really functioning mechanisms of interaction,” Putin said in an interview broadcast by the Smotrim.ru media outlet. The President noted that the US side is well aware that there are a number of areas that are of mutual interest, such as strategic stability, regional conflicts, environmental protection measures, and climate. “There are areas in which we can really work effectively,” Putin added.

In the process, President Putin said that Russia would be ready to hand over cyber criminals to the United States if Washington did the same for Moscow and the two powers reached an agreement to that effect.

The Russian leader said he expected the Geneva meeting to help establish bilateral dialogue and revive personal contacts, adding that important issues for the two men included strategic stability, Libya and Syria, and the environment.

Putin also praised Biden for having shown “professionalism” when the United States and Russia agreed this year to extend the New START nuclear arms control treaty.

The White House has said Biden will bring up ransomware attacks emanating from Russia at the meeting. That issue is in the spotlight after a cyberattack disrupted the North American and Australian operations of meatpacker JBS USA.

A Russia-linked hacking group was behind that attack, a US source familiar with the matter said last week.

Asked if Russia would be prepared to find and prosecute cyber criminals, Putin said Russia’s behaviour here would depend on formal agreements being reached by Moscow and Washington.

Both sides would have to commit to the same obligations, he said.

“If we agree to extradite criminals, then of course Russia will do that, we will do that, but only if the other side, in this case the United States, agrees to the same and will extradite the criminals in question to the Russian Federation,” he said.

“The question of cyber security is one of the most important at the moment because turning all kinds of systems off can lead to really difficult consequences,” he said.

With agency inputs

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12 killed, 138 injured in gas explosion in China

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HUBEI: At least 12 people were killed and 138 were injured in a huge gas explosion in central China on Sunday, state media reported.

A gas pipe exploded in the Zhangwan district of Shiyan city, in Hubei province at about 6:30 am local time. The number of casualties is still being verified as the search and rescue operation is underway. According to the local authorities, 150 people have been pulled from the debris, and the injured are being treated at local hospitals.

Apparently, the explosion destroyed a wet market there and greatly affected nearby residents. “Hearing the loud bang, I immediately scrabbled beneath the table, thinking it was an earthquake,” a resident surnamed Liu, told the Global Times via phone.

Images are circulating on social media, which appeared to be from the scene, showed rescue workers in orange jumpsuits working through the wreckage of flattened houses.

The cause of the accident is under investigation, according to the city government, which informed on the Chinese microblogging platform Weibo.

Rescue operation is underway and more details are awaited. ANI

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SAUDI ARABIA BARS FOREIGN PILGRIMS FROM HAJJ DUE TO COVID-19

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Amid the raging Covid-19 pandemic, Saudi Arabia has once again barred foreigners to perform the Hajj, and set a limit of maximum of 60,000 pilgrims inside the Kingdom.

“Only 60,000 vaccinated residents and citizens living in the Kingdom will be allowed to perform this year’s Haj pilgrimage due to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic,” the Ministry of Haj and Umrah announced in a statement cited by Gulf News on Saturday. The Hajj is one of Islam’s five pillars. Every able-bodied Muslim who has affordability tries to visit it at least once in a lifetime.

“Against the backdrop of what the world is witnessing and due to the continuous developments of the coronavirus pandemic as well as the emergence of new mutations, Haj registration will be limited to residents and citizens from inside the Kingdom only,” the ministry also Twitted.

“Muslims between the ages of 18-65 and are fully vaccinated, or those who received their first dose at least 14 days prior, those who are vaccinated and have recovered from a Covid-19 infection are allowed to register,” the ministry added.

This is the second year in a row that Saudi Arabia limits the Haj pilgrimage to Muslims inside the Kingdom. However, only 10,000 Muslims were allowed to perform Hajj last year.

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US AND JAPAN DEEPEN TIES WITH TAIWAN, DRAGON FINDS ITSELF IN TIGHT SPOT

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The US and Japan have been deepening their engagement with Taiwan to help guard it against a growing threat from China. The move has out Beijing in tight spot.

J. Michael Cole, writing in The National Interest said that the regime in Beijing, which continues its effort to isolate Taiwan internationally, is now in the difficult position of having to express its discontent over coronavirus response while avoiding overreaction that could create the rationale for even closer relations between Taiwan and other countries. Taiwan has had a fairly positive past month in terms of its engagement with, and support by, regional partners.

Beijing’s setbacks began back in April, with the joint statement between US President Joe Biden and his Japanese counterpart, Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga, which “underscore[d] the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait and encourage the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues.”

Such direct reference to Taiwan by a Japanese prime minister had not been heard for more than half a century, reported The National Interest. This was followed the next month by a similar statement, this one by President Biden and South Korean President Moon Jae-in, which again “emphasise[d] the importance of preserving peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait”.

The unprecedented reference to Taiwan by a South Korean leader also signalled those countries within the region were becoming increasingly alarmed with China’s destabilising behaviour—particularly the high number of intrusions by aircraft from the People’s Liberation Army Air Force and Navy into Taiwan’s southern Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), wrote Cole.

Four days before the Biden-Suga joint statement, a total of twenty-five PLA aircraft–14 J-16 multi-role fighters, four J-10 multi-role fighters, four H-6K bombers, 2 Y-8 anti-submarine planes, and one KJ-500 airborne early warning and control plane–entered Taiwan’s ADIZ, a new high since the PLA began intensifying its military activity in the region in 2020, reported The National Interest.

But now, China is in a tight spot as Taiwan is receiving more attention from allies. One strategic mistake Beijing may have committed earlier this year was its refusal to reduce its military activity around the Taiwan Strait during the transition period in Washington, wrote Cole.

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WHO chief asks China to cooperate with probe into Covid-19 origins

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Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

World Health Organization (WHO) chief Tedros Ghebreyesus has called on China to cooperate with the ongoing investigation into the origins of the Covid-19 amid renewed call to further probe the virus.

Dr Tedros made these remarks after taking part in the Group of Seven (G7) summit by video conference on Saturday, The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) reported.

The WHO Director-General hoped there would be better cooperation and transparency when the next phase of the probe into the virus’s origin is underway. “As you know we will need cooperation from the Chinese side,” he said. “We need transparency to understand or know or find the origin of this virus…after the report was released there were difficulties in the data sharing, especially in the raw data.”

He further said that the preparations for the probe’s next steps were underway and that the issue of the origin of the virus was discussed by G7 leaders on Saturday, WSJ reported.

Earlier this week, the US and the UK had extended support to a “timely, transparent and evidence-based independent process” for the next phase of the WHO-convened study of Covid-19 origins. “We will also support a timely, transparent and evidence-based independent process for the next phase of the WHO-convened COVID-19 origins study, including in China, and for investigating outbreaks of unknown origin in the future,” a joint statement said after US President Joe Biden met British Prime Minister Boris Johnson on Thursday.

This comes amid growing calls for a timely, transparent, and evidence-based independent process for the next phase of the WHO-convened origin study.

Recently, the calls to investigate further the origins of the virus have intensified. President Biden has also ordered a fresh US intelligence inquiry into the origins of the pandemic.

The origin of novel coronavirus that caused havoc around the world has remained a mystery even after 1.5 years the first case of infection was reported in the Chinese city of Wuhan.

Now, scientists and world leaders are calling for further investigations to figure out whether the virus originated naturally or leaked from the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

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G7 NATIONS CALL OUT CHINA OVER XINJIANG, HONG KONG AND TAIWAN

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In a veiled criticism of the Dragon, Group of Seven (G&) leaders called on China to respect human rights in its Xinjiang region, allow Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy, and refrain from any unilateral action that could destabilise the East and South China Seas, Reuters reported quoted a draft version of the G7 summit communique.

“We will promote our values, including by calling on China to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, especially in relation to Xinjiang and those rights, freedoms and high degree of autonomy for Hong Kong enshrined in the Sino-British Joint Declaration,” the G7 said in a communique that was almost finalised.

Before the G7 criticism emerged, China cautioned G7 leaders that the days when “small” groups of countries decided the fate of the world were long gone.

The G7 also said they underscored “the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, and encourage the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues”.

“We remain seriously concerned about the situation in the East and South China Seas and strongly oppose any unilateral attempts to change the status quo and increase tensions.”

“We also call for a timely, transparent, expert-led, and science-based WHO-convened Phase 2 Covid-19 origins study including, as recommended by the experts’ report, in China,” the communique, which is almost finalised, said.

“The days when global decisions were dictated by a small group of countries are long gone,” a spokesman for the Chinese embassy in London said.

“We always believe that countries, big or small, strong or weak, poor or rich, are equals, and that world affairs should be handled through consultation by all countries.”

Beijing has repeatedly hit back against what it perceives as attempts by Western powers to contain China, and says many major powers are still gripped by an outdated imperial mindset after years of humiliating China.

UN experts and rights groups estimate over a million people, mainly Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities, have been detained in recent years in a vast system of camps in Xinjiang.

China denies all accusations of forced labour or abuse. It initially denied the camps existed, but has since said they are vocational centres and are designed to combat extremism. In late 2019, China said all people in the camps had “graduated”.

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