Researchers have developed a deep learning-based method that can predict the possible onset of Alzheimer’s disease from brain images with an accuracy of over 99 per cent.
The findings of the research were published in the journal ‘Diagnostics’. The method was developed while analysing functional MRI images obtained from 138 subjects and performed better in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity than previously developed methods.
According to World Health Organisation, Alzheimer’s disease is the most frequent cause of dementia, contributing to up to 70 per cent of dementia cases. Worldwide, approximately 24 million people are affected, and this number is expected to double every 20 years. Owing to societal ageing, the disease will become a costly public health burden in the years to come.
“Medical professionals all over the world attempt to raise awareness of an early Alzheimer’s diagnosis, which provides the affected with a better chance of benefiting from treatment,” said Rytis Maskeliunas, a researcher at the Department of Multimedia Engineering, Faculty of Informatics, Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), Odusami’s PhD supervisor. “This was one of the most important issues for choosing a topic for Modupe Odusami, a PhD student from Nigeria,” added Maskeliunas. Image processing delegated to the machine
One of the possible Alzheimer’s first signs is mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is the stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal ageing and dementia.
Based on the previous research, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to identify the regions in the brain which can be associated with the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, according to Maskeliunas. The earliest stages of MCI often have almost no clear symptoms, but in quite a few cases can be detected by neuroimaging.
However, although theoretically possible, manual analysing of fMRI images attempting to identify the changes associated with Alzheimer’s not only requires specific knowledge but is also time-consuming — the application of Deep learning and other AI methods can speed this up by a significant time margin.
Finding MCI features does not necessarily mean the presence of illness, as it can also be a symptom of other related diseases, but it is more of an indicator and possible helper to steer toward an evaluation by a medical professional.
“Modern signal processing allows delegating the image processing to the machine, which can complete it faster and accurately enough. Of course, we don’t dare to suggest that a medical professional should ever rely on any algorithm one-hundred-per cent,” said Maskeliunas, who supervised the team working on the model.
“Think of a machine as a robot capable of doing the most tedious task of sorting the data and searching for features. In this scenario, after the computer algorithm selects potentially affected cases, the specialist can look into them more closely, and at the end, everybody benefits as the diagnosis and the treatment reaches the patient much faster,” added Maskeliunas.
We need to make the most of the data
The deep learning-based model was developed as a fruitful collaboration of leading Lithuanian researchers in the Artificial Intelligence sector, using a modification of well-known fine-tuned ResNet 18 (residual neural network) to classify functional MRI images obtained from 138 subjects.
The images fell into six different categories: from healthy through the spectre of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease. In total, 51,443 and 27,310 images from The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative fMRI dataset were selected for training and validation.
The model was able to effectively find the MCI features in the given dataset, achieving the best classification accuracy of 99.99 per cent, 99.95 per cent, and 99.95 per cent for early MCI vs. AD, late MCI vs. AD, and MCI vs. early MCI, respectively.
“Although this was not the first attempt to diagnose the early onset of Alzheimer’s from similar data, our main breakthrough is the accuracy of the algorithm. Obviously, such high numbers are not indicators of true real-life performance, but we’re working with medical institutions to get more data,” said Maskeliunas.
According to him, the algorithm could be developed into software, which would analyse the collected data from vulnerable groups (those over 65, having a history of brain injury, high blood pressure, etc.) and notify the medical personnel about the anomalies related to the early onset of Alzheimer’s.
“We need to make the most of data. That’s why our research group focuses on the European open science principle, so anyone can use our knowledge and develop it further. I believe that this principle contributes greatly to societal advancement,” said Maskeliunas.
The chief researcher, whose main area is focusing on the application of modern methods of artificial intelligence on signal processing and multimodal interfaces, said that the above-described model can be integrated into a more complex system, analysing several different parameters, for example, also monitoring eye movements’ tracking, face reading, voice analysing, etc.
Such technology could then be used for self-check and alert to seek professional advice if anything is causing concern.
“Technologies can make medicine more accessible and cheaper. Although they will never (or at least not soon) truly replace the medical professional, technologies can encourage seeking timely diagnosis and help,” concluded Maskeliunas.
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OVERWEIGHT CHILDREN CAN REDUCE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK BY FOLLOWING HEALTHY DIET
Statistically overweight children who follow a healthy eating pattern significantly improve their weight and reduce a variety of cardiovascular disease risks suggests the findings of a Cleveland Clinic-led research team.
The study, which was published in the Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, paired parents and children together throughout the trial. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, obesity now affects 1 in 5 children and adolescents in the United States. Children who are obese are more likely to have high blood pressure and high cholesterol which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Adult obesity is associated with an increased risk of several serious health conditions including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.
For one year, researchers studied changing cardiovascular disease risk markers associated with three healthy eating patterns in 96 children between the ages of 9 and 18 years old with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 95 percent. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters, but for children and teens, BMI is age and sex-specific and is often referred to as BMI-for-age.
The three healthy eating patterns studied were the American Heart Association Diet, Mediterranean Diet, and Plant-based diet. All three emphasised whole foods, fruits and vegetables and limited added salt, red meat and processed foods. Parent and child pairs attended weekly educational sessions for four weeks which covered suggested foods to eat and avoid how to read package labels, proper portion sizes and shopping tips.
Fasting blood tests were used to access biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. All three diets were associated with improvements in weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein.
“This study helps show the importance of starting healthy eating patterns as young as possible. We know that cardiovascular disease begins in childhood, and children’s eating patterns are easier to mold than adolescents and adults,” said lead author Michael Macknin, M.D., Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics of Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine.
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition recommends that healthy children age 2 and older follow a diet low in fat (30 percent of calories from fat). These are the same recommendations for healthy adults. In the study, dietary compliance rates averaged 65 percent in week 4 and 55 percent in week 52 suggesting small improvements in diets can still be very beneficial.
“Because the process of heart disease begins in childhood, prevention should begin there as well,” said W.H. Wilson Tang, M.D., study author and research director in the section of heart failure and cardiac transplantation medicine in the Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute at Cleveland Clinic.
“A large majority of heart disease is due to modifiable or controllable risk factors, so it’s important for children to understand that they are in large part responsible for their health,” added Tang.
‘Robotic lab’ at AIIMS has capacity to conduct 2 lakh tests in a day
Amidst the prevalence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the country’s renowned hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) here has prepared a ‘robotic lab’ that has the capacity to conduct more than two lakh general tests in a single day.
AIIMS “robotic smart lab” has the capacity to conduct two lakhs tests in a single day. This hi-tech lab was started last year in July and inaugurated by Former Union Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan. Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya on Monday also visited this lab and spent more than 20 minutes to see the working of this robotic lab which is fully IT and digitally enabled. Currently, this lab is conducting 3,000-4,000 tests per day but it has a capacity to conduct 8,000 tests per hour and two lakh tests in a single day.
“As of now, we are conducting 3,000-4,000 sample testings in a single day via this lab. The capacity is almost 8,000 tests per hour and 2 lakh tests in a day,” said Dr Tushar Sehgal, Assistant professor, Department of Medicine at AIIMS, Delhi.
This AIIMS smart lab is providing high-quality diagnostics and reduced time in producing lab reports here. The lab is doing more than 70- 270 advanced tests and some of them are free of cost for the patients, the official said.
Elaborating further, Dr Sehgal told ANI, “The testing involves a few stages. It primarily involves three main stages i.e. pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical stage.” “We have three different types of sample testing methods as well. Haematology, Coagulation, Chemistry are the methods,” he added. AIIMS Hi-tech robotic lab is also providing some free-of-cost tests like the D-Dimer test that costs around Rs 1,000 in private labs. “There are some tests which we do free of cost. Our vision is to provide most of the tests free of cost like LFT, CBC, D-Dimer test etc.”
VARIOUS INFECTIONS SURGE AMONG CHILDREN AS POST-COVID SYMPTOMS
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is emerging as the latest post-Covid symptom among infants and young children, said a paediatric expert on Tuesday.
According to Dr Dhiren Gupta, a senior paediatric pulmonologist at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, the early phase of RSV infection in babies and young children is often mild, like a cold. However, in children younger than age three, the illness may move into the lungs and cause coughing and wheezing. In some children, the infection can also turn into severe respiratory disease. Dr Gupta told ANI, “Among 100 cases of post-covid complications, 80 percent patients are suffering from RSV, whereas among RSV cases 80 percent patients are infants.”
The expert also added that if a patient had prolonged fever as a post-Covid symptom, then about 1 percent to 20 percent chances are patient is suffering from Tuberculosis.
“Unfortunately there is no specific treatment for RSV infection and normally takes between seven and 10 days to settle,” said Dr Gupta. The doctor said though the Covid-19 infections have not increased in number, the severity of Covid infection was a little bit more than generally found.
“Also, children who were completely fit and healthy before Covid are suffering from tuberculosis and liver abscess along with RSV and they were not given immunosuppressant such as steroids,” he added.
A pyogenic liver abscess is the development of a pus-filled pocket of fluid within the liver. Pyogenic means producing pus. A liver abscess can develop from several different sources including a blood infection, an abdominal infection or an abdominal injury that was infected.
Completing recommended sleeping hours could lead to smarter snacking choices, says a new study
The findings of a new study suggest that people who miss the recommended seven or more hours of sleep per night might make poorer snacking choices than those who adhere to shut-eye guidelines.
The study abstract has been published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the research will be presented in a poster session on 18 October at the 2021 Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo. The analysis of data on almost 20,000 American adults showed a link between not meeting sleep recommendations and eating more snack-related carbohydrates, added sugar, fats and caffeine.
It turns out that the favoured non-meal food categories—salty snacks and sweets and non-alcoholic drinks—are the same among adults regardless of sleep habits, but those getting less sleep tend to eat more snack calories in a day overall.
The research also revealed what appears to be a popular American habit not influenced by how much we sleep: snacking at night. “At night, we’re drinking our calories and eating a lot of convenience foods,” said Christopher Taylor, professor of medical dietetics in the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at The Ohio State University and senior author of the study.
“Not only are we not sleeping when we stay up late, but we’re doing all these obesity-related behaviours: lack of physical activity, increased screen time, food choices that we’re consuming as snacks and not as meals. So it creates this bigger impact of meeting or not meeting sleep recommendations,” added Taylor.
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recommends that adults should sleep seven hours or longer per night on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Getting less sleep than recommended is associated with a higher risk for a number of health problems, including weight gain, and obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.
“We know lack of sleep is linked to obesity from a broader scale, but it’s all these little behaviours that are anchored around how that happens,” said Taylor.
Researchers analysed data from 19,650 US adults between the ages of 20 and 60 who had participated from 2007 to 2018 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The survey collected 24-hour dietary recalls from each participan—detailing not just what, but when, all food was consumed—and questions people about their average amount of nightly sleep during the workweek. The Ohio State team divided participants into those who either did or didn’t meet sleep recommendations based on whether they reported sleeping seven or more hours or fewer than seven hours each night. Using US Department of Agriculture databases, the researchers estimated participants’ snack-related nutrient intake and categorized all snacks into food groups. Three snacking time frames were established for the analysis: 2:00-11:59 a.m. for the morning, 12:00-5:59 p.m. for the afternoon, and 6 p.m.-1:59 a.m. for the evening.
Statistical analysis showed that almost everyone—95.5 percent—ate at least one snack a day, and over 50 percent of snacking calories among all participants came from two broad categories that included soda and energy drinks and chips, pretzels, cookies and pastries.
Compared to participants who slept seven or more hours a night, those who did not meet sleep recommendations were more likely to eat a morning snack and less likely to eat an afternoon snack and ate higher quantities of snacks with more calories and less nutritional value.
Though there are lots of physiological factors at play in sleep’s relationship to health, Taylor said changing behaviour by avoiding the nightly nosh, in particular, could help adults not only meet the sleep guidelines but also improve their diet.
“Meeting sleep recommendations helps us meet that specific need for sleep-related to our health, but is also tied to not doing the things that can harm health,” said Taylor, a registered dietitian.
“The longer we’re awake, the more opportunities we have to eat. And at night, those calories are coming from snacks and sweets. Every time we make those decisions, we’re introducing calories and items related to increased risk for chronic disease, and we’re not getting whole grains, fruits and vegetables,” added Taylor.
“Even if you’re in bed and trying to fall asleep, at least you’re not in the kitchen eating – so if you can get yourself to bed, that’s a starting point,” noted Taylor.
INFANTS EXPOSED TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE HAVE POOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: STUDY
A new study has revealed that infants coming from homes with domestic violence often go on to have poor academic outcomes in school due to neurodevelopmental lags and a higher risk for a variety of health issues, including gastrointestinal distress, trouble eating, and sleeping, as well as stress and illness.
The findings of the study were published in the ‘Maternal and Child Health Journal’. While assessing a pregnant woman with premature labour in 1983, Linda Bullock noticed bruises on the woman. When she asked what happened, the woman told Bullock a refrigerator had fallen on her while cleaning the kitchen.
“Something didn’t seem right, but I didn’t know what to say at the time. I just went on to the next question of the assessment,” said Bullock, now a professor emerita at the University of Missouri Sinclair School of Nursing.
“We stopped her labour and sent her home, but I will bet my last dollar I sent her back to an abusive relationship, and it sparked my interest in helping other nurses assist battered women. What we didn’t know at the time was the impact violence had on the baby,” Bullock added.
Bullock helped implement the Domestic Violence Enhanced Perinatal Home Visits (DOVE) program in rural Missouri, which empowered safety planning and reduced domestic violence for hundreds of abused pregnant women.
After learning from home health visits that many of the abused women had up to nine different romantic partners during and following pregnancy, Bullock conducted a study to examine the impact of multiple father figures on the cognitive development of newborn infants.
After administering neurodevelopmental tests during home visits three, six and 12 months after birth, she was surprised to find the infants of women who had only one male partner who abused them had worse cognitive outcomes compared to infants of women with multiple male partners, only some of whom were abusive.
“The findings highlight the variety of ways the multiple father figures may have been helping the mom support her baby, whether it was providing food, housing, childcare or financial benefits,” Bullock said.
“For the women with only one partner who abused them, the infant’s father, the father may not have provided any physical or financial support or played an active role in the child’s life. It can be difficult for busy, single moms struggling to make ends meet to provide the toys and stimulation their infants need to reach crucial developmental milestones,” Bullock added.
Bullock added that infants coming from homes with domestic violence often go on to have worse academic outcomes in school due to neurodevelopmental lags and a higher risk for a variety of health issues, including gastrointestinal distress, trouble eating and sleeping, as well as stress and illness.
“When nurses are visiting homes to check in on pregnant women and their developing babies, we want them to be trained in recognising the warning signs of potential intimate partner violence,” Bullock said.
“I still think back to 1983 when I sent that lady back home into a terrible situation, and I am passionate about making sure I can help nurses today not make the same mistake I made,” Bullock continued.
Transplant recipients face elevated risk of developing cancer, says a new study
The findings of a new study suggest that people who have received organ transplants face an elevated risk of developing cancer, primarily due to immunosuppression from medications to prevent organ rejection, as well as underlying medical conditions.
An important unresolved question relates to the contribution of cancer to years of life lost among transplant recipients, which is a measure of the impact of cancer on premature death. This question was explored recently in a study published by Wiley early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. For the study, Anne-Michelle Noone, Ph.D., of the National Cancer Institute, and her colleagues examined organ transplant and cancer registry data in the United States from 1987 to 2014, with information related to all ages and all organs. The team quantified the life-years lost to cancer or the extent to which the average lifespan is shortened by cancer, among transplant recipients.
Among 221,962 transplant recipients, 13,074 (5.9 percent) developed cancer within 10 years of transplantation. During this 10-year post-transplant period, recipients who developed cancer lost an average of 2.7 years of life due to their cancer diagnosis. In total, cancer was responsible for 11 percent of all life-years lost due to any cause.
Lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma had the highest impact, and each resulted in a lifespan shortened by approximately five years. Lung recipients had the highest life-years lost due to cancer, followed by heart recipients. Also, life years lost due to cancer increased with age.
The authors stress the importance of cancer prevention and screening in transplant recipients, with special attention for those at the highest risk.
“For example, there may be opportunities to screen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma especially in groups at high risk for this cancer, such as children. Also, healthcare providers should consider screening older transplant recipients with a smoking history for lung cancer, as recommended for people who smoke in the general population,” said Dr Noone.
Among 221,962 transplant recipients, 13,074 (5.9 percent) developed cancer within 10 years of transplantation. Recipients who developed cancer lost an average of 2.7 years of life due to their cancer diagnosis. In total, cancer was responsible for 11 per cent of all life-years lost due to any cause.
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