Eating a millet-based diet can reduce the risk of developing type-2 diabetes and help manage blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, suggests a new study.
The study indicated the potential to design appropriate meals with millets for diabetic and pre-diabetic people as well as for non-diabetic people as a preventive approach. The findings of the research were published in the journal ‘Frontiers in Nutrition’. Drawing on research from 11 countries, the study showed that diabetic people who consumed millet as part of their daily diet saw their blood glucose levels drop 12-15 per cent (fasting and post-meal), and blood glucose levels went from diabetic to pre-diabetes levels.The HbA1c (blood glucose bound to hemoglobin) levels lowered on average 17 per cent for pre-diabetic individuals, and the levels went from pre-diabetic to normal status. These findings affirm that eating millets can lead to a better glycemic response.
The authors reviewed 80 published studies on humans of which 65 were eligible for a meta-analysis involving about 1,000 human subjects, making this analysis the largest systematic review on the topic to date.“No one knew there were so many scientific studies undertaken on millets’ effect on diabetes and these benefits were often contested. This systematic review of the studies published in scientific journals has proven that millets can keep blood glucose levels in check and reduce the risk of diabetes. It has also shown just how well these smart foods do it,” said Dr S Anitha, the study’s lead author and a Senior Nutrition Scientist at ICRISAT.
Millets, including sorghum, were consumed as staple cereals in many parts of the world until half a century ago. Investments in a few crops such as rice, wheat and maize, have edged nutritious and climate-smart crops like millets out of the plate.
“Awareness of this ancient grain is just starting to spread globally, and our review shows millets having a promising role in managing and preventing type 2 diabetes. In the largest review and analysis of research into different types of millet compared to other grains such as refined rice, maize and wheat we found that millets outperform their comparison crops with lower GI and lower blood glucose levels in participants,” observed Professor Ian Givens, a co-author of the study and Director at University of Reading’s Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health (IFNH) in the UK.
According to the International Diabetes Association, diabetes is increasing in all regions of the world. India, China and the USA have the highest numbers of people with diabetes. Africa has the largest forecasted increase of 143 per cent from 2019 to 2045, the Middle East and North Africa 96 per cent and South East Asia 74 per cent.
The authors urged the diversification of staples with millets to keep diabetes in check, especially across Asia and Africa. Strengthening the case for reintroducing millets as staples, the study found that millets have a low average glycemic index (GI) of 52.7, about 36 per cent lower GI than milled rice and refined wheat, and about 14-37 GI points lower compared to maize.All 11 types of millets studied could be defined as either low (55) or medium (55-69) GI, with the GI as an indicator of how much and how soon a food increases blood sugar level. The review concluded that even after boiling, baking and steaming (the most common way of cooking grains) millets had a lower GI than rice, wheat and maize.
“Millets are grown on all inhabited continents, yet they remain a ‘forgotten food’. We hope this will change from 2023 when the world observes the United Nations declared International Year of Millets, and with studies like this that show that millets outperform white rice, maize and wheat,” said Rosemary Botha, a co-author of the study who was based in Malawi at the time of the study, with the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).“The global health crisis of undernutrition and over-nutrition coexisting is a sign that our food systems need fixing. Greater diversity both on-farm and on-plate is the key to transforming food systems. On-farm diversity is a risk-mitigating strategy for farmers in the face of climate change while on-plate diversity helps counter lifestyle diseases such as diabetes. Millets are part of the solution to mitigate the challenges associated with malnutrition, human health, natural resource degradation, and climate change. Trans-disciplinary research involving multiple stakeholders is required to create resilient, sustainable and nutritious food systems,” said Dr Jacqueline Hughes, Director General, ICRISAT.
Professor Paul Inman, Pro-Vice-Chancellor (International) of the University of Reading, stressed that “The rapidly accelerating threats of climate change and global health crises, including obesity and diabetes, require everyone to pull together in action. The partnership between ICRISAT and the University of Reading is doing exactly this, bringing together our world leading expertise in human nutrition with ICRISAT’s long-established role as a leader in agricultural research for rural development.”
The study also identified information gaps and highlighted a need for collaborations to have one major diabetes study covering all types of millets and all major ways of processing with consistent testing methodologies. Structured comprehensive information will be highly valuable globally, taking the scientific knowledge in this area to the highest level.
“This study is first in a series of studies that has been worked on for the last four years as a part of the Smart Food initiative led by ICRISAT that will be progressively released in 2021. Included are systematic reviews with meta-analyses of the impacts of millets on diabetes, anemia and iron requirements, cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and calcium deficiencies as well as a review on zinc levels,” explained Joanna Kane-Potaka, a co-author from ICRISAT and Executive Director of the Smart Food initiative.
As part of this, ICRISAT and the Institute for Food Nutrition and Health at the University of Reading have formed a strategic partnership to research and promote the Smart Food vision of making our diets healthier, more sustainable in the environment and good for those who produce it,” added Kane-Potaka.
The Daily Guardian is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel (@thedailyguardian) and stay updated with the latest headlines.
For the latest news Download The Daily Guardian App.
OVERWEIGHT CHILDREN CAN REDUCE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK BY FOLLOWING HEALTHY DIET
Statistically overweight children who follow a healthy eating pattern significantly improve their weight and reduce a variety of cardiovascular disease risks suggests the findings of a Cleveland Clinic-led research team.
The study, which was published in the Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, paired parents and children together throughout the trial. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, obesity now affects 1 in 5 children and adolescents in the United States. Children who are obese are more likely to have high blood pressure and high cholesterol which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Adult obesity is associated with an increased risk of several serious health conditions including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.
For one year, researchers studied changing cardiovascular disease risk markers associated with three healthy eating patterns in 96 children between the ages of 9 and 18 years old with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 95 percent. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters, but for children and teens, BMI is age and sex-specific and is often referred to as BMI-for-age.
The three healthy eating patterns studied were the American Heart Association Diet, Mediterranean Diet, and Plant-based diet. All three emphasised whole foods, fruits and vegetables and limited added salt, red meat and processed foods. Parent and child pairs attended weekly educational sessions for four weeks which covered suggested foods to eat and avoid how to read package labels, proper portion sizes and shopping tips.
Fasting blood tests were used to access biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. All three diets were associated with improvements in weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein.
“This study helps show the importance of starting healthy eating patterns as young as possible. We know that cardiovascular disease begins in childhood, and children’s eating patterns are easier to mold than adolescents and adults,” said lead author Michael Macknin, M.D., Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics of Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine.
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition recommends that healthy children age 2 and older follow a diet low in fat (30 percent of calories from fat). These are the same recommendations for healthy adults. In the study, dietary compliance rates averaged 65 percent in week 4 and 55 percent in week 52 suggesting small improvements in diets can still be very beneficial.
“Because the process of heart disease begins in childhood, prevention should begin there as well,” said W.H. Wilson Tang, M.D., study author and research director in the section of heart failure and cardiac transplantation medicine in the Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute at Cleveland Clinic.
“A large majority of heart disease is due to modifiable or controllable risk factors, so it’s important for children to understand that they are in large part responsible for their health,” added Tang.
INDIA’S COVID-19 VACCINATION COVERAGE EXCEEDS 81.85 CRORE
With the administration of 96,46,778 vaccine doses in the last 24 hours, India’s Covid-19 vaccination coverage exceeded 81.85 crores (81,85,13,827) as per provisional reports till 7 am on Tuesday, informed the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
The ministry said that this has been achieved through 80,35,135 sessions. As per the data, as many as 1,03,69,386 healthcare workers have been inoculated with the first dose of the Covid vaccine while 87,50,107 have been inoculated with both doses. The number of frontline workers vaccinated stands at 1,83,46,016 (first dose) and 1,45,66,593 (two doses).
According to the health ministry, 33,12,97,757 vaccine doses were administered as the first dose and 6,26,66,347 vaccine doses were given as the second dose in the age group 18-44 years.
Also, in the age group of 45-59 years, 15,20,67,152 people have received the first dose and 7,00,70,609 have received the second dose whereas 9,74,87,849 vaccine doses were administered as first dose and 5,28,92,011 vaccine doses given as the second dose to the people over 60 years. Meanwhile, India reported 26,115 new Covid-19 cases in the last 24 hours.
Sustained and collaborative efforts by the Centre and the states, UTs continue the trend of less than 50,000 daily new cases that are being reported for 86 consecutive days now.
“The recovery of 34,469 patients in the last 24 hours has increased the cumulative tally of recovered patients (since the beginning of the pandemic) to 3,27,49,574,” the ministry said.
The active caseload is presently 3,09,575 which constitutes 0.92 percent of the country’s total positive cases while the recovery rate stands at 97.75 percent. The testing capacity across the country continues to be expanded. The last 24 hours saw a total of 14,13,951 tests being conducted. India has so far conducted over 55.50 crores (55,50,35,717) cumulative tests. The weekly positivity rate at 2.08 percent remains less than 3 percent for the last 88 days now. The daily positivity rate was reported to be 1.85 percent. The daily Positivity rate has remained below 3 percent for the last 22 days and below 5 percent for 105 consecutive days now.
‘Robotic lab’ at AIIMS has capacity to conduct 2 lakh tests in a day
Amidst the prevalence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the country’s renowned hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) here has prepared a ‘robotic lab’ that has the capacity to conduct more than two lakh general tests in a single day.
AIIMS “robotic smart lab” has the capacity to conduct two lakhs tests in a single day. This hi-tech lab was started last year in July and inaugurated by Former Union Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan. Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya on Monday also visited this lab and spent more than 20 minutes to see the working of this robotic lab which is fully IT and digitally enabled. Currently, this lab is conducting 3,000-4,000 tests per day but it has a capacity to conduct 8,000 tests per hour and two lakh tests in a single day.
“As of now, we are conducting 3,000-4,000 sample testings in a single day via this lab. The capacity is almost 8,000 tests per hour and 2 lakh tests in a day,” said Dr Tushar Sehgal, Assistant professor, Department of Medicine at AIIMS, Delhi.
This AIIMS smart lab is providing high-quality diagnostics and reduced time in producing lab reports here. The lab is doing more than 70- 270 advanced tests and some of them are free of cost for the patients, the official said.
Elaborating further, Dr Sehgal told ANI, “The testing involves a few stages. It primarily involves three main stages i.e. pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical stage.” “We have three different types of sample testing methods as well. Haematology, Coagulation, Chemistry are the methods,” he added. AIIMS Hi-tech robotic lab is also providing some free-of-cost tests like the D-Dimer test that costs around Rs 1,000 in private labs. “There are some tests which we do free of cost. Our vision is to provide most of the tests free of cost like LFT, CBC, D-Dimer test etc.”
VARIOUS INFECTIONS SURGE AMONG CHILDREN AS POST-COVID SYMPTOMS
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is emerging as the latest post-Covid symptom among infants and young children, said a paediatric expert on Tuesday.
According to Dr Dhiren Gupta, a senior paediatric pulmonologist at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, the early phase of RSV infection in babies and young children is often mild, like a cold. However, in children younger than age three, the illness may move into the lungs and cause coughing and wheezing. In some children, the infection can also turn into severe respiratory disease. Dr Gupta told ANI, “Among 100 cases of post-covid complications, 80 percent patients are suffering from RSV, whereas among RSV cases 80 percent patients are infants.”
The expert also added that if a patient had prolonged fever as a post-Covid symptom, then about 1 percent to 20 percent chances are patient is suffering from Tuberculosis.
“Unfortunately there is no specific treatment for RSV infection and normally takes between seven and 10 days to settle,” said Dr Gupta. The doctor said though the Covid-19 infections have not increased in number, the severity of Covid infection was a little bit more than generally found.
“Also, children who were completely fit and healthy before Covid are suffering from tuberculosis and liver abscess along with RSV and they were not given immunosuppressant such as steroids,” he added.
A pyogenic liver abscess is the development of a pus-filled pocket of fluid within the liver. Pyogenic means producing pus. A liver abscess can develop from several different sources including a blood infection, an abdominal infection or an abdominal injury that was infected.
Completing recommended sleeping hours could lead to smarter snacking choices, says a new study
The findings of a new study suggest that people who miss the recommended seven or more hours of sleep per night might make poorer snacking choices than those who adhere to shut-eye guidelines.
The study abstract has been published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the research will be presented in a poster session on 18 October at the 2021 Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo. The analysis of data on almost 20,000 American adults showed a link between not meeting sleep recommendations and eating more snack-related carbohydrates, added sugar, fats and caffeine.
It turns out that the favoured non-meal food categories—salty snacks and sweets and non-alcoholic drinks—are the same among adults regardless of sleep habits, but those getting less sleep tend to eat more snack calories in a day overall.
The research also revealed what appears to be a popular American habit not influenced by how much we sleep: snacking at night. “At night, we’re drinking our calories and eating a lot of convenience foods,” said Christopher Taylor, professor of medical dietetics in the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at The Ohio State University and senior author of the study.
“Not only are we not sleeping when we stay up late, but we’re doing all these obesity-related behaviours: lack of physical activity, increased screen time, food choices that we’re consuming as snacks and not as meals. So it creates this bigger impact of meeting or not meeting sleep recommendations,” added Taylor.
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recommends that adults should sleep seven hours or longer per night on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Getting less sleep than recommended is associated with a higher risk for a number of health problems, including weight gain, and obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.
“We know lack of sleep is linked to obesity from a broader scale, but it’s all these little behaviours that are anchored around how that happens,” said Taylor.
Researchers analysed data from 19,650 US adults between the ages of 20 and 60 who had participated from 2007 to 2018 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The survey collected 24-hour dietary recalls from each participan—detailing not just what, but when, all food was consumed—and questions people about their average amount of nightly sleep during the workweek. The Ohio State team divided participants into those who either did or didn’t meet sleep recommendations based on whether they reported sleeping seven or more hours or fewer than seven hours each night. Using US Department of Agriculture databases, the researchers estimated participants’ snack-related nutrient intake and categorized all snacks into food groups. Three snacking time frames were established for the analysis: 2:00-11:59 a.m. for the morning, 12:00-5:59 p.m. for the afternoon, and 6 p.m.-1:59 a.m. for the evening.
Statistical analysis showed that almost everyone—95.5 percent—ate at least one snack a day, and over 50 percent of snacking calories among all participants came from two broad categories that included soda and energy drinks and chips, pretzels, cookies and pastries.
Compared to participants who slept seven or more hours a night, those who did not meet sleep recommendations were more likely to eat a morning snack and less likely to eat an afternoon snack and ate higher quantities of snacks with more calories and less nutritional value.
Though there are lots of physiological factors at play in sleep’s relationship to health, Taylor said changing behaviour by avoiding the nightly nosh, in particular, could help adults not only meet the sleep guidelines but also improve their diet.
“Meeting sleep recommendations helps us meet that specific need for sleep-related to our health, but is also tied to not doing the things that can harm health,” said Taylor, a registered dietitian.
“The longer we’re awake, the more opportunities we have to eat. And at night, those calories are coming from snacks and sweets. Every time we make those decisions, we’re introducing calories and items related to increased risk for chronic disease, and we’re not getting whole grains, fruits and vegetables,” added Taylor.
“Even if you’re in bed and trying to fall asleep, at least you’re not in the kitchen eating – so if you can get yourself to bed, that’s a starting point,” noted Taylor.
INFANTS EXPOSED TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE HAVE POOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: STUDY
A new study has revealed that infants coming from homes with domestic violence often go on to have poor academic outcomes in school due to neurodevelopmental lags and a higher risk for a variety of health issues, including gastrointestinal distress, trouble eating, and sleeping, as well as stress and illness.
The findings of the study were published in the ‘Maternal and Child Health Journal’. While assessing a pregnant woman with premature labour in 1983, Linda Bullock noticed bruises on the woman. When she asked what happened, the woman told Bullock a refrigerator had fallen on her while cleaning the kitchen.
“Something didn’t seem right, but I didn’t know what to say at the time. I just went on to the next question of the assessment,” said Bullock, now a professor emerita at the University of Missouri Sinclair School of Nursing.
“We stopped her labour and sent her home, but I will bet my last dollar I sent her back to an abusive relationship, and it sparked my interest in helping other nurses assist battered women. What we didn’t know at the time was the impact violence had on the baby,” Bullock added.
Bullock helped implement the Domestic Violence Enhanced Perinatal Home Visits (DOVE) program in rural Missouri, which empowered safety planning and reduced domestic violence for hundreds of abused pregnant women.
After learning from home health visits that many of the abused women had up to nine different romantic partners during and following pregnancy, Bullock conducted a study to examine the impact of multiple father figures on the cognitive development of newborn infants.
After administering neurodevelopmental tests during home visits three, six and 12 months after birth, she was surprised to find the infants of women who had only one male partner who abused them had worse cognitive outcomes compared to infants of women with multiple male partners, only some of whom were abusive.
“The findings highlight the variety of ways the multiple father figures may have been helping the mom support her baby, whether it was providing food, housing, childcare or financial benefits,” Bullock said.
“For the women with only one partner who abused them, the infant’s father, the father may not have provided any physical or financial support or played an active role in the child’s life. It can be difficult for busy, single moms struggling to make ends meet to provide the toys and stimulation their infants need to reach crucial developmental milestones,” Bullock added.
Bullock added that infants coming from homes with domestic violence often go on to have worse academic outcomes in school due to neurodevelopmental lags and a higher risk for a variety of health issues, including gastrointestinal distress, trouble eating and sleeping, as well as stress and illness.
“When nurses are visiting homes to check in on pregnant women and their developing babies, we want them to be trained in recognising the warning signs of potential intimate partner violence,” Bullock said.
“I still think back to 1983 when I sent that lady back home into a terrible situation, and I am passionate about making sure I can help nurses today not make the same mistake I made,” Bullock continued.
Opinion11 months ago
South Block’s mistakes will now be corrected by Army
Sports1 year ago
When a bodybuilder breaks Shoaib’s record
News1 year ago
PM Modi must take governance back from babus
Spiritually Speaking1 year ago
Spiritual beings having a human experience
News1 year ago
Chinese general ordered attack on Indian troops: US intel report
Sports1 year ago
West Indies avoid follow-on, England increase lead to 219
Legally Speaking1 year ago
Law relating to grant, rejection and cancellation of bail
Royally Speaking1 year ago
The young royal dedicated to the heritage of Jaipur