Sino-India disengagement in eastern Ladakh is fundamentally good news. The Defence Minister has outlined the broad modalities. It was followed up by an explanatory press release. Vacation of Kailash Range prior to resolving issues at Depsang, Hot Springs and Gogra has worried many. Understandable. However, disengagement is a work in progress and phased. It will be a long-drawn affair. We do not have the fine print. Hence no speculations. Leave it to the commanders on ground to see the process through. They know the situation better and would have built fall back options to ensure that issues are resolved. Have faith in them. They will not let us down.
Let us examine the outcomes based on facts. From the beginning the PLA aggression was doomed to go nowhere. On 26 May 2020, I had written that there are two likely outcomes. The standoff ends at a table and China withdraws to resume as an unmanned LAC or we end up with a manned LAC. We are in between. China is withdrawing to Finger 8 and we will end up with semi manned LAC.
After 1962, the Chinese got a bloody nose at Nathu La, were outmanoeuvred in Sumdorong Chu and blocked in Doklam. Against this backdrop China started this conflict. First, it must have done some assessment and selected an aim. What was it? We still do not know. If they are now going back to their starting points, their selected aim(s) has neither been maintained nor achieved! On the other hand, India has walked away with enhanced strategic confidence, infrastructure boost, better preparedness, closer Indo US relationship and more as predicted . What China did not want at all! Second, the Chinese put up signage and a China map , between ‘Finger 4’ and ‘Finger 5’ measuring approximately 81 m by 25 m, large enough to be spotted by satellites. In this era of perception battles, this was proclamation of sovereign Chinese territory. Today they are in the process of vacating it after obliterating that map! Sovereignity gained and Sovereignty lost! Thirdly, it was always told that a stalemate is a victory for India in any Sino India conflict. We are at a stalemate. Fourth, very clearly from all international reports, including the latest one of Tass, China has suffered more casualties at Galwan. Fifth, the Chinese were also clearly outmanoeuvred at Kailash Range when India occupied it with an ‘in your face’ surprise action. Lastly, if you have not achieved your aim, suffered more causalities, been outmanoeuvred, surprised, packed up your flag where you planted it and are going back to your starting point—have you lost it or not? Understand this. The four feet tall Chinaman has lost it. The psychological effect on troops will be long lasting.
Last year it was predicted that PLA will steam roll us. People from USA and Taiwan expressed concern. Pakis were gleeful. How would India cope with this mean machine? They had heard that Indian Army did not have enough clothing and that there were all kinds of shortages. All that stands answered. Incidentally it was the Chinese who have been wanting to quit ever since October-November. It was PLA who was not well clothed! It was our considered decision to keep them there till now. PLA has suffered causalities and lost motivation further as a result. The PLA is clearly limited by capability. The chasm of experience between the political PLA and the professional Indian armed forces was apparent. PLA has an overestimation—underestimation paradox.
Chinese influence ops constantly build a halo of invincibility around PLA capabilities while denigrating others capabilities. It appears that the PLA leadership has fallen prey to its own influence ops. They believed in their ‘overestimated’ capability (in all media by all their ‘experts’) and ‘underestimated’ Indian military capability. Of course they found out a reality. This complements another visible stability-instability paradox. ‘Stability’ of top echelons of PLA in organisation, planning and preparing is visible. Equally, an ‘instability’ at fighting echelons due to lack of experience, motivation and initiative has manifested. If one notices, PLA stopped showing any fight after Sep 20. The PLA is not quite the modern fighting force as it is made out. It is also clear that wars are not won by Comprehensive National Power. There has also been lot of international commentary that the Indian armed forces are too conventional and ‘not fit’ for modern wars. Wars might be modern. However Sino Indian conflicts have to be still fought on good old unforgiving Himalayan terrain. The PLA has found that it takes more than Global Times propaganda to make it a high altitude capable force.
However, let us not gloat or drop our guard. China remains untrustworthy as ever. Galwan stands testimony to their perfidy. In this disengagement process it will be prudent on our part not to trust PLA . Repeatedly verify everything. Also, we should expect a stab in the back any time. Hence we must keep it covered. I do hope that our Commanders on ground have built in insurance and leeway to prise the PLA away from Depsang, Gogra and Hot Springs as indicated by our RM in the parliament. I am also sure that they have taken enough precautions to ensure that the Kailash Range does not fall in the hands of the Chinese when vacated. In any case, the defences previously built will continue to be manned. I do not think the whole range will be vacated. I have confidence in the commanders on ground. We will leave it to them to sort out the long drawn process which has just started.
We should also understand as to why the Chinese are stepping back. Firstly the CCP centenary celebrations are due this year. China cannot afford an ongoing conflict situation in summer where the risk of loss is as high as the uncertainty of victory. It will spoil the party for Xi and his power dispensation. Next. China wants to get out of a two front situation. This is its secondary front. If it persists here, it will face trouble at the front door – South China Sea. From the beginning I have been saying that the PLA does not have resources to deal with India, leave alone all fronts. Continuing a confrontation with India only stretches Chinese resources. More importantly, the PLA has hit a wall. They would have known that no country has been able to force the issue through armed aggression with India—directly or indirectly. In all cases they were in an unwinnable situation. They are cutting losses. They need a different strategy hereafter.
The natural question is: What if the Chinese recommence their offensive in summer? What if they re-occupy the heights? As I have pointed out earlier, the CCP centenary is coming. Hence. What if they lose again in a conflagration? End of story. Will they risk it? No. PLA does not have capability to prosecute mountain warfare. If they had, they would not have had to obliterate their map on Finger 4! The next question is that having learnt the conditions in eastern Ladakh, is PLA more experienced to prosecute offensive operations? Doubtful. They carried out offensive ops, only when unopposed. Even then they were road bound Off the tracks, their capability remains suspect. They have to shed blood for that. We developed this fighting capability by shedding blood and kicking Pakistanis out of Tololing, Tiger Hill and Jubar and… also losing lives in Siachen. It is a steep learning curve. Further as this situation continues, the Tibet factor will assume greater proportions. Already the issue has been rekindled. As time goes by, the costs for China will also go up. I am sanguine that nothing serious will happen immediately. Yes . There will be probing attempts like the one at Naku La. If they find a weakness they will grab it. There will be faceoffs and clashes. Let us not rule it out. Another major point is that China’s internal conditions are not favourable to risk an ongoing conflict. I am referring to the combination of vaccines, virus, economy, manufacturing, dissent, bankruptcies et al. Of course, China can go back on its word. There will be repercussions for that beyond the conventional… Quad… Tibet… insurgency… CPEC…bleeding… increased international trust deficit… China is not a runaway express train.
Ah! Where does this leave the Pakis? Squirming. Release of Chinese pressure on India in eastern Ladakh means a threat from western Ladakh into Gilgit Baltistan! After all if the situation eases with the Chinese, India has well prepared troops in situ, to march west! Hence a two-front situation turns into ‘advantage India’. Classic inner line operations. Look further, if their bosom Chinese friends cannot make headway against India and have to back track, what happens to the Pakistani psyche? Reminds me of that famous dialogue” ‘Thera kya hoga kalia?’
Where does this leave India? The primary task before India is to achieve ‘status quo ante’ of last year. At the same time we must be ready for any Chinese turnaround. If it happens we should be prepared to do some counter incursion into PLA held areas and turn tables. More importantly we should prepare for the next round which will happen down the line. However, our effort should be to build conventional deterrence to ensure that the fight is taken deeper into Tibet. To achieve that India must force multiply its rebalancing plans with increased firepower reach and surveillance capability as I have outlined earlier. Very importantly we need to build sinew into our Armed Forces. Despite all the talk of Aatmanirbhata and it being a strategic imperative , it takes a cogent plan to achieve it. We have been better at making new DAPs and announcing grandiose schemes but rather laid back in executing them. Another major lesson for India is that for the first time military led talks have been successful. Till now our failures have been guided by a standalone approach of the MEA. Going forward, we should build on the synergy achieved in this episode to develop integrated approaches where the Armed Forces are genuine stakeholders rather than being side lined.
A new dynamic has been introduced in the LAC management. The area between Finger 8 and Finger 4 has been configured into a ‘no transgression’ area. If this mechanism works, it can be used to manage all areas where perceptions of LAC overlap between India and China. It will reduce friction by keeping the forces apart. However it is too early to see how this experiment pans out. Further China and India will have to work out verification mechanisms for disengagement bilaterally. Overall there is a long way to go.
Finally, the disengagement was announced by our Defence Minister on the floor of the house. The Chinese announced it through a nondescript spokesperson. What does it tell you? The difference between the victor and the vanquished? Leave it to you to decide.
Lt Gen PR Shankar was India’s DG Artillery. He is highly decorated and qualified with vast operational experience. He contributed significantly to the modernisation and indigenisation of Artillery. He is now a Professor in the Aerospace Dept of IIT Madras and is involved in applied research for defence technology. His other articles can be read on www.gunnersshot.com.
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INDIAN ARMY HANDS OVER MEDICAL EQUIPMENT TO NEPALI ARMY
NEW DELHI: As part of its ‘Neighbourhood First’ policy, medical equipment and supplies worth Nepali Rupees 28.80 crore provided by the Indian Army were handed over to the Nepali Army on Friday. In a ceremony at Nepali Army Headquarters, Tundikhel today, the medical equipment was handed over by Ambassador Vinay Mohan Kwatra to General Purna Chandra Thapa, Chief of the Nepali Army. The ambassador reaffirmed India’s support to Nepali Army in its fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and lauded its contribution in this respect.
The medical equipment, including Ventilators, Ambulances, ICU beds, PPE Kits, PCR test Kits etc was delivered to Kathmandu on 10 June 2021. The Indian Army has been assisting the Nepali
Army to fight Covid-19 through various kinds of assistance since last year, including 1 Lakh doses of Covishield vaccines which were provided in March 2021.
The latest assistance is another testament to the close cooperation between the two armies and the two countries, particularly in times of need.
Defence Minister inaugurates BRO centres
Defence Minister Rajnath Singh dedicated to the nation two Centres of Excellence established by Border Roads Organisation (BRO) at Seema Sadak Bhawan in New Delhi on Friday. These Centres have been established to achieve excellence in road safety as well as foster growth in construction of roads, bridges, air fields and tunnels. The Centre of Excellence for Road Safety & Awareness (CoERSA) aims to create awareness about road safety through analysis sharing of road accidents and suggesting methods to save precious lives. The Centre of Excellence for Roads, Bridges, Air Fields and Tunnels (CoERBAT) focuses on institutionalising the knowledge gained over the years in development of almost 60,000 kilometres of roads, 56,000 metres of bridges, 19 airfields and four tunnels in the eastern and north-western part of the country.
Speaking on the occasion, Rajnath Singh appreciated the efforts of BRO in establishing the Centres of Excellence, expressing confidence that they will play a pivotal role in saving precious lives. Terming road accidents as a silent pandemic that claims approx. 1.5 lakh lives every year, the Raksha Mantri stated that the Government has taken a number of initiatives such as National Road Safety Policy, Motor Vehicle Act 2020 and identification of black spots on national highways to tackle the problem and the setting up of these Centres is another step in that direction. The Raksha Mantri lauded the crucial role played by BRO in the progress of the nation since its inception by building roads, tunnels and other infrastructure in remote areas. He praised the efforts of BRO for working tirelessly in tough weather conditions to increase connectivity in border areas, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Describing connectivity as an essential component of a nation’s progress, he said BRO is catering to the needs of the Armed Forces as well as working towards the socio-economic development of the border areas. He made special mention of the recent achievements of BRO, including state-of-the-art construction of ‘Atal Tunnel, Rohtang’, Kailash Mansarovar Road and Zojila pass. He also appreciated BRO for raising awareness about road safety through innovative slogans and signboards. Rajnath Singh also listed out various measures taken by the Government for the development of BRO. These include increase in the budget of BRO, approval of special high-altitude clothing for the personnel as well as cadre review to boost the morale of the organisation. He assured BRO of continued support of Ministry of Defence, saying that the Government remains committed to the progress of the far-flung areas of the country. He also remembered the BRO personnel who laid down their lives in the service of the nation.
During the event, the Raksha Mantri also launched four software developed to optimise the work efficiency of BRO personnel, their HR management, recruitment management, enrolment and works management. The BRO has created the software to reduce paperwork, with focus on minimising the carbon footprint. Rajnath Singh termed the development of the software as a great example of ‘Self-reliant India’ and ‘Digital India’ campaigns. He stated that the software will further improve the efficiency of the organisation, modernise it and save time. The first ever Solo Woman Motorcycle Expedition by Ms Kanchan Ugursandi to Umling La Pass, Ladakh and back was also flagged off on the occasion. The Raksha Mantri extended his best wishes to Ms Kanchan Ugursandi and expressed confidence that she will come out with flying colours and complete the task by setting new records.
Earlier, DG Border Roads Lt Gen Rajeev Chaudhry briefed Rajnath Singh on the initiatives and achievements of BRO in recent years. He informed the Raksha Mantri about the ongoing and future projects, with focus on AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan envisioned by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. He also informed Raksha Mantri on the awareness campaigns being carried out by BRO related to COVID-19 and Azadi ka Amrut Mahotsav in far-flung areas. The DG Border Roads said BRO remains committed towards serving the nation and would bring all necessary changes to enhance the efficiency of the organisation. Chief of Defence Staff General Bipin Rawat and Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar were among the dignitaries present on the occasion.
A LOOK AT DEFENCE MINISTRY’S 20 REFORMS IN 2020
Defence Minister Rajnath Singh released an e-booklet titled ’20 Reforms in 2020’, highlighting the major reforms undertaken by Ministry of Defence (MoD) in 2020, in New Delhi earlier this week. The compilation provides a brief overview of defence reforms undertaken in the year 2020 by MoD to bring about greater cohesion and modernisation of the Armed Forces through policy changes, innovation and digital transformation. Reforms also focused on the ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ initiative of Prime Minister Narendra Modi; increased collaboration with the industry to boost defence exports; measures to accelerate defence acquisitions with greater transparency; digital transformation; strengthening of border infrastructure; increased participation of women in Armed Forces; transformation in R&D to boost innovation; expansion of NCC to remote locations and aid extended to the civil administration in fight against Covid-19. Raksha Rajya Mantri Shripad Y Naik, Chief of Defence Staff General Bipin Rawat, Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Karambir Singh, Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal RKS Bhadauria, Chief of Army Staff General MM Naravane, Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar, Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare) Mr. Ravikant, Secretary Department of Defence R&D and Chairman, Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) Dr G Satheesh Reddy and Financial Advisor (Defence Services) Mr. Sanjiv Mittal were present on the occasion.
Addressing the gathering, Rajnath Singh termed the E-booklet as an important document on the bright future of the defence sector in the country. “The booklet is a reflection of the resolve of the Government, under the able leadership of Prime Minister Modi, to make the defence sector stronger and more efficient,” he said. The Raksha Mantri expressed confidence that the reforms undertaken by MoD will make India a global powerhouse in the defence sector in the times to come.
20 REFORMS IN 2020
Chief of Defence Staff & Department of Military Affairs
The appointment of India’s first Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and creation of Department of Military Affairs (DMA) were among the major decisions taken by the Government. The post of CDS was created to increase efficiency & coordination among the Armed Forces and reduce duplication, while DMA was established to ensure improved civil-military integration. General Bipin Rawat was appointed as the first CDS who also fulfils the responsibilities of Secretary, DMA.
AATMANIRBHARTA IN DEFENCE
To promote ‘Make in India’ in defence sector, a list of 101 defence items was notified in August 2020, while Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020 was unveiled in September 2020. Rs 52,000 crore budget was earmarked for indigenously made defence equipment in 2020-21. Corporatisation of Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) was approved in May 2020 for greater efficiency and productivity. There was an unprecedented push towards new technology developments within India. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) developed a ventilator in record time to meet Covid-19 requirements in May 2020.In November 2020, Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile, indigenously designed & developed DRDO, hit bullseye at medium range and medium height, while indigenously built Pinaka rocket system cleared test of 45-60 km range.
INCREASED DEFENCE EXPORTS
The increased partnership with the private sector has led to a substantial rise in defence exports. The value of total defence exports rose from Rs 1,941 crore in 2014-15 to Rs 9,116 crore in 2019-20. Also, for the first time, India figured in the list of defence equipment exporting nations, as the exports expanded to more than 84 countries.
MODERNISATION & INCREASED TRANSPARENCY IN DEFENCE ACQUISITION
In highest-ever thrust towards modernisation in last 10 years, there was 10 per cent budget increase in 2020-21 over the previous year. Policy reforms for increased transparency included launch of new Defence Acquisition Procedure in September 2020 and revision of DRDO Procurement Manual in October 2020. To encourage start-ups, a provision was introduced for procurement as Buy Indian-IDDM, while leasing for non-mission critical requirements was introduced for the first time.
First five Rafale fighter aircraft arrived in India in July 2020 and several more since then, adding firepower to the arsenal of the Indian Air Force. Despite the COVID-19 challenge, the aircraft were delivered timely and inducted into IAF.
REFORMING DEFENCE R&D
To promote innovation by young minds, five Young Scientists Laboratories of DRDO were launched in 2020 in Bengaluru, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad. DRDO has joined hands with the private sector in design & development and identified 108 Systems & Subsystems for the industry to design, develop and manufacture.
For the first time, several organisations of Ministry of Defence went digital. Directorate General Quality Assurance (DGQA) started online Pre-Delivery inspection in May 2020 to address security threats, while Armed Forces Tribunal began digital hearing for the first time in August 2020. Defence Estates, Canteen Stores Department, services in Cantonment, MoD Pension and National Cadet Corps (NCC) also went online providing faster and transparent services.
STRENGTHENING BORDER INFRASTRUCTURE
Reforms of processes and workflows within Border Roads Organisation (BRO) enabled it to achieve targets ahead of schedule, in some instances. World’s longest Atal tunnel above 10,000 feet, at Rohtang on the Leh-Manali Highway was inaugurated by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in October 2020. It provides all weather connectivity to the northern borders. Zojila pass, situated on the Srinagar-Kargil-Leh National Highway, was opened almost a month ahead of schedule in April 2020.
STREE SHAKTI IN ARMED FORCES
In 2020, Ministry of Defence took some historic decisions to increase participation of women in the Armed Forces. Ten streams of Indian Army were opened for giving Permanent Commission to Short Service Commission (SSC) Women officers, while women pilots of Indian Navy were operationalised for the first time. All Sainik Schools were thrown open for girl students from academic session 2020-21.
REFORMS IN NCC
Expanding the reach of NCC to remote locations was a major announcement made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi from the ramparts of Red Fort on Independence Day on August 15, 2020. More than 1,075 schools/colleges in border and coastal areas were identified and the enrolment began in November 2020. In another decision, it was decided to give preference to NCC cadets in employment in Central Armed Police Forces from May 2020. Youth Exchange Programme Allowance for NCC cadets was increased from Rs 100 per day to Rs 750 and the number of countries was increased from 10 to 15.
AID TO CIVIL ADMINISTRATION DURING COVID-19
Ministry of Defence and the Armed Forces have mobilised resources to aid the civil administration in fight against COVID-19. Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS) provided all emergency support to tide over the situation. They have mobilised doctors, health professionals and set up Quarantine facilities at several locations across the country. DRDO has set up several hospitals to treat COVID patients across the states, passed on technology expertise to manufacture ventilators, oxygen plants, medicines, test kits and PPE kits to private sector for mass production.
HELP BEYOND BOUNDARIES
The Armed Forces extended a helping hand to the countries in distress. Indian Navy mounted eight relief missions during 2020-21. Besides evacuating stranded Indians from Iran, Sri Lanka and Maldives under Vande Bharat Mission, Indian Naval ships provided Covid-19 medical relief, including medicines and doctors, to five countries. INS Airavat provided 270 MT food aid to Sudan, Djibouti and Eritrea struck by natural calamities. The Indian Coast Guard led the rescue operation to save Sri Lanka coast of its biggest oil spill. Indian Air Force carried out over 800 relief missions during 2020-21.
INDIAN NAVY GETS NEW OPERATIONS CHIEF
Vice Admiral Rajesh Pendharkar has assumed charge as Director General Naval Operations. An alumnus of the National Defense Academy, Khadakwasla, Pune, he was commissioned into the Indian Navy in Jan 1987. He is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, Naval War College, Karanja, and Naval Command College, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. The Flag Officer is a specialist in Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and has served on frontline warships of the Navy as ASW Officer and later as the Executive Officer and Principal Warfare Officer of Guided Destroyer INS Mysore. He has commanded the missile corvette INS Kora, the missile frigate INS Shivalik and the aircraft carrier INS Viraat. He has held important staff appointments in IHQ MoD (Navy) in the Directorate of Staff Requirements, Directorate of Personnel, and the Directorate of Net-Centric Operations.
On promotion to the rank of Rear Admiral in Feb 2016, he was appointed as the Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (Int – A) at HQ IDS, New Delhi, and subsequently as the Chief Staff Officer (Operations) in Headquarters, Western Naval Command, Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra Naval Area and Flag Officer Sea Training.Vice Admiral Rajesh Pendharkar is a recipient of the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal and Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service.
ADVANCED LIGHT HELICOPTERS INDUCTED AT INS DEGA
The induction ceremony of ‘322 Dega Flight’ was held in the presence of Vice Adm Ajendra Bahadur Singh, Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command (ENC) with three indigenously built Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH) MK III helicopters flying into Naval Air Station, INS Dega earlier this week. With the induction of these Maritime Reconnaissance and Coastal Security (MRCS) helicopters, the ENC got a major boost towards enhancing the capabilities of the force, in pursuit of the maritime interests of the nation. These helicopters, built by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, are state-of-the-art flying machines and constitute a major step in our quest for “Atma Nirbhar Bharat”.
ALH MK III helicopters feature an array of systems previously seen only on heavier, multi-role helicopters of the Indian Navy. These helicopters are fitted with modern surveillance radar and electro-optical equipment, which enable them to undertake the role of maritime reconnaissance in addition to providing long-range Search and Rescue, both by day and night. In addition to special operations capabilities, ALH MK III is also fitted with a heavy machine gun to undertake constabulary missions. A removable Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) is also fitted on ALH MK III helicopters to airlift critically ill patients. The helicopter also has a host of advanced avionics, making it truly an all-weather aircraft. The flight is being led by Cdr SS Dash as the first flight commander who is an experienced ALH Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI) with extensive operational experience.
INDIAN AND THAI NAVIES CARRYING OUT 31ST COORDINATED PATROL
NEW DELHI: The 31st edition of India-Thailand Coordinated Patrol (Indo-Thai CORPAT) between the Indian Navy and the Royal Thai Navy is being conducted from 9th to 11th June. Indian Naval Ship (INS) Saryu, an indigenously built Naval Offshore Patrol Vessel and His Majesty’s Thailand Ship (HTMS) Krabi, an Offshore Patrol Vessel, along with Dornier Maritime Patrol Aircraft from both navies are participating in the CORPAT.
Towards reinforcing maritime links between the two countries and with an aim of keeping this vital part of the Indian Ocean safe and secure for international trade, the two navies have been undertaking CORPAT bi-annually along their International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) since 2005. CORPAT builds up understanding and interoperability between navies and facilitates institution of measures to prevent and suppress unlawful activities like Illegal Unreported Unregulated (IUU) fishing, drug trafficking, maritime terrorism, armed robbery and piracy. It further helps enhance the operational synergy by exchange of information for prevention of smuggling, illegal immigration and for conduct of SAR operations at sea.
As part of Government of India’s vision of SAGAR (Security And Growth for All in the Region), the Indian Navy has been proactively engaging with the countries in the Indian Ocean Region towards enhancing regional maritime security. This has been through bilateral and multilateral exercises, Coordinated Patrols, Joint EEZ Surveillance, and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations. The Indian Navy and Royal Thai Navy have especially enjoyed a close and friendly relationship covering a wide spectrum of activities and interactions, which have strengthened over the years. The 31st Indo-Thai CORPAT will contribute towards Indian Navy’s efforts to consolidate inter-operability and forge strong bonds of friendship with Royal Thai Navy.
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