A heart attack is a condition when the arteries supplying blood to the heart (one or more) are blocked by a clot formation, cutting off the blood supply to part of the heart it is supplying. This results in a shortage of oxygen and other nutrients that lead to the death of the muscle cells of the heart. Actress Mandira Bedi’s husband, filmmaker/producer Raj Kaushal recently passed away after suffering a cardiac arrest, he was only 49. It is pertinent to mention that middle-aged men and women indeed have an increased risk of heart disease, therefore, they should follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. Here, we will discuss how people, who are in their 40s, can prevent heart-related problems.
At 40 years of age one is at the twilight of youth and steps into middle age. There are hormonal changes in both the sexes as a part of ageing which has a complex relationship with the body’s metabolism that is affected leading to several changes in the body.
Forty is an age where most are at an important stage of their professional career along with added responsibilities in their family life. The peer pressures of performance at work along with various other difficulties makes it a very vulnerable period of ones’ life. This is an age where diseases like Type II Diabetes, High BP, dyslipidemia and various other diseases manifest or are detected. The psychological pressures push people into excessive stress resulting in lack of sleep, unhealthy eating, increased alcohol consumption and smoking. Due to scarcity of time, there is a lack of physical exercise too. All these contribute to weight gain, high BP, high blood sugar, high cholesterol which pushes a person into the vicious cycle of bad health with a very high risk of life-threatening heart attack and stroke. 20% of people who have a heart attack are 40 or younger and this rate has risen by 2% every year in the last decade.
SYMPTOMS OF HEART ATTACK
It’s crucial to be aware of the symptoms of a heart attack. Some of these are:
• Chest pain perceived as a feeling of pressure or tightness
• Pain in the centre of the chest with radiation to the left arm, shoulder and jaw associated with sweating
• Shortness of breath
• Excessive unexplained sweating
• Feeling dizzy and fainting
• Pain in the upper abdomen radiating upwards to the chest and back with nausea and vomiting
SMOKING AND HEART DISEASE
Every cigarette smoked makes you more likely to get a heart attack or stroke. Roughly one out of five deaths from heart disease are directly related to smoking. People who smoke are two to four times more likely to get heart disease. The risk is even greater in women who smoke and also take birth control pills.
How does cigarette smoke harm your heart and blood vessels?
1. It causes endothelial activation and dysfunction by reducing vascular NO availability, biomolecule oxidation and endothelial damage. The endothelium is the innermost layer of a blood vessel
2. It causes pathogenic alterations in lipid profile and lipid oxidation
3. It induces a local and systemic proinflammatory status leading to injury to the endothelium
4. It causes a procoagulative environment leading to thrombus formation (blood clotting)
5. Smoking causes the heart rate to rise and also increases blood pressure
There are 7000 toxic substances found in cigarette smoke.
The cardiovascular diseases caused by smoking are: coronary artery disease (arteries of the heart), hypertension, heart attack, stroke (brain), aortic aneurysm (dilation due to thinning of the walls of the vessel), and peripheral vascular disease (affect the vessels of the limbs).
HOW DOES QUITTING SMOKING HELP?
Twenty minutes after you quit smoking your heart rate drops.Just twelve hours after quitting the carbon monoxide level in blood drops to normal, allowing more oxygen to vital organs.Within four years of quitting, your risk of stroke drops to that of lifetime non-smokers.
HOW TO PROTECT YOUR HEART?
Get moving: Aim for at least 30 to 60 min of activity per day. Regular or daily physical activity can lower your risk of heart disease by reducing your weight, blood sugar, cholesterol and BP. It can be 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic exercise like walking, cycling or jogging or a 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity or two or more strength training sessions a week.
Eat a Heart-Healthy diet: A healthy diet will protect your heart by reducing your weight, controlling BP, cholesterol, and diabetes. A heart-healthy diet includes vegetables and fruits, beans or other legumes, lean meats and fish, low fat or fat-free dairy products, whole grains, and healthy fats like Olive oil. Limit the intake of salt, sugar, alcohol, saturated fat (found in red meat and full-fat dairy products), trans fat (found in fried fast food, chips and baked food).
Maintain a Healthy weight: A BMI of 25 and above is considered overweight. Overweight especially around the middle part of the body increases the chance of developing heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and Type II Diabetes.
Waist circumference is a useful tool to measure abdominal fat. 40 inches for men and 35 inches for women are considered the cut-off point. Reducing your weight by just 3% to 5% can be beneficial as it can decrease certain fats (triglycerides), blood sugar, BP, and cholesterol.
Get good quality sleep: Lack of sleep leads to a higher risk of obesity, high BP, heart attack, diabetes, and depression. Most adults need seven hours of sound sleep. Make sleep a priority in your life by setting a schedule and sticking to it. Thus going to sleep and getting up at the same time every day. If you feel tired throughout the day or have a disturbed sleep where you wake up several times at night then get yourself evaluated for obstructive sleep apnoea, which manifest as snoring, stopping of breath, and waking up gasping. This is treated with a CPAP continuous positive airway pressure and weight reduction. This is one of the reasons for high BP, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death.
Stress management: Cope with stress properly and not by indulging in smoking, eating unhealthy food, and drinking alcohol. Exercise and sports are good ways to reduce stress. Meditation and yoga are the best but getting counselled by a Clinical Psychologist is helpful.
Regular Screening tests: Regular screening help you identify your risk for heart disease, especially if have a strong family history of one.
BP screening should begin from the age of 18 and measured at least once in two years. For people in their 40s, who are not hypertensive, should have their BP screened at least annually.
Cholesterol screening should also begin at the age of 20 and done annually for people with a family history of hypertension or heart disease. Once detected to have abnormal levels, tests should be repeated every six months or else annually.
Screening for diabetes: If one has a strong family history of diabetes or is overweight then screening should begin early. But for those, who have neither, screening should begin at 45.
Electrocardiogram: People with a family history of sudden cardiac death should be screened in their teens. Several familial and sporadic diseases cause a sudden increase in heart rate resulting in cardiac arrest and death. They have certain characteristic ECG by which they are diagnosed. A 24 Hr Holter (ECG) monitoring is also advised to them.
Imaging: Ultrasonographic (Echocardiography) imaging helps identify certain familial and congenital conditions which can cause sudden death. Hence, it is advised for people with a family history of premature deaths.
The writer is Consultant – Senior Interventional Cardiologist, Cardiac Science, HCMCT Manipal Hospital, Dwarka.
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CAN NATURAL SUPPLEMENTS FIGHT ANXIETY?
Anxiety is the body’s natural response to stress. People suffering from extreme anxiety have experienced a constant feeling of fear, uneasiness, dread, and are almost always worried.
A common question asked by those who seek some relief from anxiety is, “Are there any natural remedies that can help my stress and anxiety?” Yes, there are many naturally found herbs, vitamins and minerals that can give assistance in anxiety, some of which have been utilised for eras and are now certainly earning recognition from doctors and researchers.
Most people think that anxiety is merely a piece of their character or produced by tension in their lives. However, biology also has a crucial function in how you manage your anxiety. Your neurotransmitters, hormones, inflammation levels and reaction to situations all determine how you control your anxiety levels during stressful situations. Unlike medications, which work on a single issue at a time and provide only symptom control, natural herbs, nutraceuticals and supplements for anxiety can help manage multiple systems working together to reach a natural destination at once without resulting in addiction or the body depending on them in the long term.
Nowadays, the general population is progressively embracing a healthy, more natural lifestyle. People are shifting their food habits to organic and natural ingredients. Similarly, when it comes to medication to help manage their stress and anxiety, most people opt for nutraceuticals, food supplements and herbs that are readily available. Here are some popular herbs to alleviate stress and anxiety:
Ginger, a source of naturally found nutraceuticals and healthy enzymes, is known to help stall the brains ageing process. Persistent inflammation and anxiety are factors that influence your brain health. Ginger has naturally found antioxidants and bioactive compounds that assist the fight against inflammation and improve the functioning of the brain as we age and deal with excessive stress.
Ginseng is a resourceful herb listed as an adaptogen. It signifies that Ashwagandha has a notable influence on controlling the body’s reaction to stress. Adaptogens, are agents that influence the hormones and bodily systems to improve how a person reacts to stress and anxiety. It is a commonly recommended herb suggested to women who need assistance to help manage their stress-related issues. It has also proven efficient and helpful in controlling other body ailments such as low thyroid and blood pressure.
Omega 3 rich foods are a source of healthy, natural vitamins and minerals that help the brain stay healthy and combat degenerative brain-specific symptoms. By diminishing the manifestations of anxiety and depression, omega 3 helps the brain function adequately and stay robust. In addition, these foods also help resist memory loss and other age-related brain issues.
Multiple studies have proven that the long-term use of chamomile extract assists in reducing the symptoms of moderate to severe levels of stress and anxiety. Chamomile is a flowering plant commonly used in tea. There are two varieties of Chamomile: Roman and German. Used as an extract, tablet, and as an ingredient in skincare, chamomile has proven to be effective as a stress and anxiety-relieving ingredient.
Co Q-10 is a naturally produced nutrient in our body. It aids energy production and fights off cell-damaging free radicals. Low Coenzyme Q10 levels can be one of the reasons patients suffer from anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder or other neurological disorders. CoQ10 supplementation has helped patients with low coenzyme Q10 levels manage their symptoms and, in some cases, reverse the effects of their ailments.
All these can be naturally sourced or can be consumed through nutraceuticals and supplements available in the market. Many patients believe that anxiety is something that they have to live with permanently. In reality, anxiety is often a consequence of biological irregularities that can be managed and regulated by including the correct supplements and ingredients in their diets. When used with other techniques from meditation, yoga, therapy and integrative nutraceuticals and food supplements can help patients on their path towards an anxiety-free.
The writer is a health expert and founder of Zyropathy.
EXPERT DECODES FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY HEALTH
The fertility health of a couple is important for conception. Fertility is the ability to conceive and bear children and to become pregnant through normal sexual activity. When a couple has been trying to conceive for more than a year with unprotected sex without any success, it is time to consult a fertility expert.
Besides biological factors, various other factors like social, environmental, occupation and lifestyle habits affect the fertility health of the couple.
The fertility rate of a population is defined as the average number of children born to a woman of childbearing age (15 years to 44 years). The birth rate is defined as the number of live births per 1000 of the population each year. In the last 30 years, India has seen a marked decline in the fertility rates of the country. According to recent numbers, the fertility rate in India has dropped from 4.82 in 1980 to 2.2 per woman in 2020. This helps in the population stabilisation of the country. On the other hand, subfertility and infertility are on the rise in India and it is a matter of concern for society.
FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY HEALTH
Age- With advancing age, the number and quality of the eggs decrease in women. As they approach the mid to late 30s, the decrease becomes more profound. Experts also emphasise that male fertility also decreases with age.
Previous Pregnancy- Couples who have conceived once have a higher chance of getting pregnant again
Duration of Subfertility- Experts say that couples who have been trying to conceive for a shorter duration have a higher success rate for pregnancy than couples with a longer duration of subfertility.
Timing and Frequency of Sexual Intercourse- Menstrual cycle is of 28-days for most women. Women are most fertile between 12 to 16 days of the cycle. Ovulation occurs usually in the mid-cycle around 14th day in a 28 days cycle.
Weight- Overweight and obese women might have irregular periods and face difficulty in getting pregnant. However, experts say that by reducing 5% to 10% of their weight, they can restore a regular menstrual cycle and increase the chance of getting pregnant. Obesity in males also decreases sperm numbers and quality.
Smoking- As per scientific evidence smoking is harmful both in males and females. It decreases sperm quality. According to data, smoking increases the chances of difficulty getting pregnant by 300% (three times).
Alcohol- There are conflicting reports on how alcohol consumption might affect fertility. Some reports suggest that drinking more than five units of alcohol may decrease fertility in women. Excessive Alcohol intake in males is harmful to sperm quality and increases the chances of male infertility.
Medical Conditions- There are some medical conditions like thyroid issues and vitamin D deficiency—these decrease fertility in both men and women.
The fertility rate is dependent on several factors like medical, social, environmental and lifestyle of couple. Lifestyle modification with exercise and healthy diet and a stress-free environment can go a long way in ensuring fertility. Prevention is always better than cure.
The writer is Consultant & Advisor, Birla Fertility & IVF.
DIABETES AND TECHNOLOGY: ENABLING POSITIVE HEALTH OUTCOMES
Technology is enabling diabetes management in several ways, certain apps have simplified it. Compact medical equipment helps in continuous glucose management. There is also remote patient monitoring (RPM) especially with regard to home healthcare companies.
The incidence of diabetes has increased manifold in India and it is one of the most widespread lifestyle diseases even on a global level. Estimates suggest that at least 10% of India’s population will be affected by the condition by 2025. Diabetes requires continuous monitoring and management, the lack of which can cause complications including amputations, blindness, neuropathy, etc. This makes ongoing management, as well as patient education and supports extremely critical, more so during a time when Covid-19 has made things more difficult. However, it is also during these times that technology has emerged as an enabler in managing diabetes. The development of advanced technologies, including apps, glucometers, etc., is enabling people living with diabetes and specialists to manage the condition in a better manner. Technology has also come to the fore in helping with remote patient monitoring (RPM) especially with regard to home healthcare companies. Telemedicine and its benefits in managing diabetes have reached a stage of adoption that would have been unimaginable in an earlier scenario. In fact, a report by IQVIA highlights how the pandemic is an opportunity to transform diabetes care through digital innovation.
Continuous glucose management.
There are several ways in which technology is enabling diabetes management. For instance, compact medical equipment that helps in continuous glucose management has a small sensor that is changed in 10 to 14 days. This is inserted on the abdomen or upper arm and helps take readings in real-time. People with diabetes can thus avoid finger pricking and simply scan the sensor for results. Other advantages of CGM include identification of nightly fluctuations, data storage, reduction of HbA1C levels, and help keep blood glucose levels in a healthy range. Apart from these, there are apps that have simplified diabetes management and control. According to statistics, the usage of such apps is expected to increase at a CAGR of 21% by 2027.
Going forward, technology is set to play a larger role in the treatment and management of diabetes to keep track of vital parameters while limiting face-to-face contact. According to a report, the market for AI in diabetes management will reach $1264.7 million by 2024. It will be possible to enhance the lives of people living with diabetes through algorithms connecting glucose monitors and insulin pumps. This will help in automatically regulating blood glucose to healthy levels.
Digital and data-driven solutions are the future and have the potential to reduce mortality, morbidity, and complications; provide a better quality of life and safety to patients; as well as enable effective diagnosis and management of diabetes in people with the condition. For a better and far-reaching impact, investment in improving existing infrastructure and policies, interoperability, among other things are the need of the hour. The future will be all about innovations in digital health, smart data, telemedicine, and home care models. These will transform and facilitate triaging of those who visit hospitals, need supportive care at home, and even in the realm of mobile clinics for support care.
Last but not the least, regular checkups and monitoring and a healthy lifestyle are the cornerstones of diabetes management. As with anything else, knowledge is power in managing diabetes and increasing your lifespan. Arming yourself with the basics can help you live happily and in better health without letting diabetes affect you adversely.
The writer is President, Medical Services, Portea Medical.
DENGUE FEVER DURING PREGNANCY CAN HAVE SERIOUS EFFECTS TO THE FETUS
Dengue is caused by the bite of an infected Aedes Aegypti mosquito and presents as a high-grade viral fever. Pregnant women need to protect themselves from getting infected with the disease as the occurrence of dengue in pregnant women is on the rise due to a heavy increase in mosquitoes in densely populated areas.
Worldwide there are 190 million cases of dengue, while our country is seeing a 25% increase each year mainly due to ineffective preventive steps to control mosquito breeding. As we look at the statistics, it becomes extremely important to keep your surroundings clean to stay away from dengue. Here are some important things about dengue that pregnant women need to keep in mind.
BEING CAREFUL WHILE YOU ARE PREGNANT
While you are pregnant, it is important to be careful of the places you travel to as dengue is fairly common in more than 100 countries, including tropical countries. Before you set out on your journey, ensure to find out if dengue is prevalent in that country. Also, do not forget to talk to your gynaecologist before travelling. Prevention is better than cure as far as dengue is concerned as an expecting mother infected with dengue has the possibility to pass the infection to her fetus during pregnancy or at the time of birth. Dengue can have serious effects on the fetus including low birth weight, premature birth and even death.
However, if you happen to reside or need to travel in an area with risk of dengue, do remember to protect yourself from mosquito bites by wearing long-sleeved clothes, using a safe mosquito repellent, staying at a place with screens on windows and doors and most important is to take adequate steps to keep your surroundings clean to control mosquitos in and around your locality.
EFFECTS OF DENGUE ON MOTHER
For expectant mothers who happen to contract the infection—adequate fluid intake is the first thing to be prescribed as hydration is crucial to maintain embryonic fluid level. In addition to antipyretics, careful monitoring is important by medical experts.
Besides high-grade fever, persistent vomiting, fluid accumulation, intense headache, retro-orbital pain, abdominal pain, mucosal bleeding, lethargy, liver enlargement, and increasing haematocrit with decreasing platelets are some other symptoms. haemorrhage, severe plasma leakage, or organ failure are some of the presentations of severe dengue. Also, pregnant women infected with dengue have a possibility of pre-term delivery, low birth weight babies and pre-eclampsia.
Effects of dengue on the fetus or newborn vary with possibly less fetal harm occurring earlier in pregnancy. Early detection of dengue in pregnancy and appropriate medical care reduces fatality to below 1%. In view of the risk of vertical transmission, newborns with mothers who had dengue just before or at the time of delivery need to be closely monitored.
In summation, dengue fever also known as a break-bone disease results in severe weakness in patients which can be very dangerous for pregnant women. Timely treatment is the key to controlling the infection in its early stages. Any delay in treatment could result in multi-organ infection, acute respiratory distress syndrome and internal bleeding which can lead to spontaneous abortions and other complications in expectant mothers.
The writer is Gynaecologist, Obstetrician, and IVF Expert, Nurture IVF Clinic.
Pregnant women need to protect themselves from getting infected with the disease as the occurrence of dengue in pregnant women is on the rise due to a heavy increase in mosquitoes in densely populated areas.
Worldwide there are 190 million cases of dengue, while our country is seeing a 25% increase each year mainly due to ineffective preventive steps to control mosquito breeding.
DEPRESSION AND ITS PHYSICAL MANIFESTATIONS
“Our mind controls our body” is true to a great extent as a lot of people having mental illnesses have physical expressions of the same. Of all the mental illnesses it’s primarily depression and anxiety which have physical manifestations to a greater extent. Depression is a mental illness that affects the mood of people, leads to a feeling of hopelessness, reduced attention and concentration. Beyond that, it also leads to a variety of physical symptoms. Some of the physical manifestations which point towards depression are as follows:
Weight Changes: Appetite changes are most seen in depression and people can have either weight gain or weight loss. Some patients feel excessive craving for food and hence they end up gaining a significant amount of weight due to their binge eating. This increase in weight further like a ripple effect leads to various health conditions like heart disease and diabetes. On the other hand, a few people give up food completely owing to their depression and thus experience fatigue, exhaustion and other health issues.
Sleep deprivation: Insomnia is one of the most reported symptoms of depression. The patients who experience sleep deprivation for a long time start seeing effects on their cognition, experience weight gain, have cardiac manifestations and it is also reported to lead to various serious health issues like cancer.
Chronic Pain and Inflammation: Another frequently reported symptom especially in the Asian Population is chronic joint and muscle pains when people are depressed. Breast tenderness in females and headaches which can be debilitating at times are also reported by patients. In these patients, pain affects more due to decreased pain tolerance. Depressive patients also report repeated inflammations or worsening of inflammatory conditions like arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 2 diabetes. There is some relationship between worsening of these conditions and research is still on to figure out what causes what?
Gastric Problems: As mentioned above, eating patterns start changing in any person who is emotionally deprived or distressed. Eating problems can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation. Some patients experience IBS symptoms and treatment of depression will not lead to improvement in these symptoms and treatment requires a lifestyle change. The gut is considered as the second brain so gastric problems are very commonly seen in depression, as the change in the bacteria in the gastric tract precipitate both anxiety and depression. Eating a balanced diet with probiotics can solve this issue.
Heart Disease: Change in sleeping, eating predisposes a patient to cardiac conditions as depression leads to major lifestyle changes and a sedentary lifestyle.
Sexual health problems: The major treatment of infertility as explained by most of the experts is destressing the couple. Depression is seen to affect the libido of people, having a less pleasurable sexual life and hence the effect on fertility is seen.
Worsening of underlying chronic health issues: Diabetes, hypertension, and a lot of other chronic conditions worsen in depression. Hence, it’s mandatory to manage both things simultaneously as depressed patients are not able to follow the advised treatment plans and compliance becomes an issue due to forgetfulness.
Overexpression of physical symptoms is one of the reasons for an increase in the number of patients being reported to the psychiatrist by general physicians and there is a strong connection between physical complaints and depression.
The writer is a Consultant Psychiatrist, Masina Hospital, Mumbai.
TECHNOLOGY IS REVOLUTIONISING INDIA’S PRIMARY HEALTHCARE SYSTEM
Health-tech innovators are building IoT-centric connected solutions enabling patients to manage their health more affordably.
Improving the accessibility, affordability, and quality of care should be the heart of the primary healthcare system. While the Covid-19 pandemic crippled India’s primary healthcare system, it also accelerated digital health transformation across the industry. Digital health tools like point-of-care diagnostic devices, teleconsultation applications, EMR/EHR systems etc., facilitated a rapid response and in turn saw a huge uptake—which has laid a foundation for changes in the delivery of care to improve accessibility, affordability, and quality of care.
Accessibility: About 75% of all healthcare resources such as doctors, hospitals, and diagnostic facilities are concentrated in the urban areas which house less than 30% of the population. This has resulted in a tremendous lack of primary healthcare access for the rural population. People need to travel to address minor concerns which costs them both, time and money, over and above actual medical expenses. It’s easier, in this scenario, to ignore health concerns until serious intervention is warranted. Easily curable conditions like Malaria or Breast cancer lead to mortality due to delay in seeking intervention. Thus, there is a prevalent tendency to ignore health conditions until one becomes sick enough to warrant urgent medical care. This challenge of providing ‘care near home’ is now being effectively overcome by integrated digital healthcare support where point-of-care diagnostic devices, telemedicine consultations, and preventive management of diseases. For example, eSanjeevani OPD, a doctor to patient telemedicine system developed by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) in Mohali under the Ayushman Bharat Scheme of the Government of India has improved healthcare access in rural communities. Daily over 40,000 patients use eSanjeevaniOPD to seek health services remotely.
Affordability: India has one of the lowest per capita healthcare expenditures in the world. In fact, it is less than even 10% of the global average. While government healthcare facilities offer free treatment, the cost of medicines and diagnostics is still required to be managed out-of-pocket by the public. Due to the lack of doctors and facilities at government-run hospitals, people prefer private hospitals. Further, the government sector accounts for only about 1/3rd of the overall healthcare ecosystem, and the majority of the services especially in the diagnostics arena are managed by the private sector.
In such a scenario, there is an urgent need to develop and deploy affordable cutting-edge technologies. Health-tech innovators are building IoT-centric connected solutions enabling patients to manage their health more affordably by encouraging preventive lifestyle changes, facilitating disease self-management, and lowering the direct and indirect costs of clinic visits, travel or unpaid time off work.
Quality of care: The application of artificial intelligence (AI) and data analytics in healthcare has significantly improved the outcomes and quality of care. AI’s biggest benefit comes in the form of the ability to repeatedly process data and conduct tasks such as analysis of lab tests, evaluation of scans, offering data-driven medical consultations and customisations as per a patient’s medical history. Computerised patient records can reduce medical errors, improve patient safety, and promote quality improvement in diverse patient settings. AI and Big Data are streamlining the operational process of clinical trials resulting in the development of medicines at a faster pace.
Digital health is vital to strengthen any country’s primary healthcare system. As per World Health Organisation, to make digital health a reality in primary health care, countries must address its key components. These include: building the physical infrastructure, deploying appropriate services and applications, developing a capable health workforce, ensuring a sound legal and regulatory environment, and improving governance, policy, standardisation and interoperability.
Undoubtedly, India has embarked on a path to build a digital healthcare ecosystem There will be greater emphasis on out-of-hospital healthcare for disease treatment and prevention. Handheld and personalised IoT devices will lead the diagnostic and disease management efforts and with the unveiling of the NDHM, integration with health insurance and other components is the next step in this direction.
It remains to be seen if the pipe dream of equal and affordable universal healthcare for all will become a reality courtesy of the digital healthcare innovations taking place in India!
The writer is the CEO of HealthCube.
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