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Historical mistake corrected in a right manner at Ayodhya

The decision to take the legal recourse was a wise move and it helped find a way to correct things without aggrieving any community and faith.

K N Dikshit

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A view of river Saryu on the eve of the foundation stone-laying ceremony of the Ram temple, in Ayodhya on Tuesday. (ANI Photo)

‘The Archaeology of Ramayana Project’ was conceptualised by Prof B.B. Lal in 1975 when he was at the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla. Thereafter, K.V. Soundarajan and this author, on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of India, from 1976-84, jointly excavated at Ayodhya (the capital of Rama); Sringaverapura (where Rama crossed the Ganga); Bharadwaj Ashram (where he sojourned for a while); Nandigram (from where Bharata ruled the kingdom), Chitrakuta (where Rama stayed for a pretty long period), and Pariar (where Lakshmana left Sita at the behest of his elder brother Rama).

As per the order of the High Court, a ground penetration radar survey was undertaken and the then Archaeological Survey of India was asked in 2002-03 to further excavate the Ram Janmabhoomi area under Hari Manjhi and B.R. Mani. Eighty-two trenches were laid out below the demolished Babri Masjid and adjoining the earlier excavations. These new trenches were also meant to verify the anomalies noticed in Ground Penetrating Radar Survey. The cultural sequence started from pre-NBPW (Northern Black Polished Ware) to late and post-Mughal level. But 14C (carbon-dating) dates supplied by the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, have pushed back the antiquity of lowest levels somewhere to c. 1500 BCE. The discovery of rows of 50 pillar bases and other remains of architectural parts of a temple confirms the existence of a massive structure which shows the distinctive features of a temple of north India.

 The Indian traditions and mythological stories are reflected in the Puranas and the epics. F.E. Pargiter, H.C. Raychaudhuri and P.L. Bhargava provided sequential history on Indian chronology. The historians and archaeologists while dealing with traditions have correlated many historical sites with one or other Puranic dynasties but missed the identity of the authors. The concerns of archaeologist B.P. Sinha about the impact of archaeology on the epics, especially the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, were to know whether they were myths or based on real events. He concluded that the “Mahabharata and archaeology have very much concurred with each other. Archaeology and traditions in case of the Ramayana may not play hide and seek for long”. Serious attempts were also made earlier and data was compiled in 1973 by H.D. Sankalia in Ramayana: Myth and Reality and in 1976 in Mahabharata: Myth and Reality by S.P. Gupta and K.S. Ramachandran.

Ayodhya is situated on the right bank of the Saryu river in Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. The ancient mound of Ayodhya covers about a square km of area. Over there excavations were carried out in 1975, 1976-77 and 1979-80, altogether at fourteen different spots, digging over 100 trenches of 10×10 sqm. These are located along the river on the western and northern peripheries, in the heart of the settlement, as well as on the eastern and southern sides, and include many of the traditional spots, such as the Janmabhoomi area, Hanuman Garhi, Sita ki Rasoi, Nala-Tila, Kausilya Ghat, etc.

The Banaras Hindu University also did some work nearly a decade ago at this site. The excavation revealed a fairly compact and working sequence for the antiquity of the place from its first settlement over the natural soil. This began with the use of the well-known ‘Northern Black Polished Ware’, in all its shades. At the lowest levels, alongside the NBPW, were also found a few shades of grey ware, painted with fugitive bands in black pigment along the rim or obliquely on the exterior. With this inception, the occupational phases of the mound appear to have continued up to circa third century CE, represented by several structural phases.

 In the earlier stages, the houses were of wattle-anddaub or mud, followed by those of baked bricks. In the Janmabhoomi area, a massive wall of bricks was observed across the sector obliquely, which may perhaps be identified as a fortification wall. Immediately below this massive wall, mud-brick structures were found. In the upper levels of this phase, which may perhaps be called the post-rampart phase, extending from circa third century BCE to the first century CE, terracotta ring-wells were noted. The fortification wall appears to have had a fairly deep ditch, almost like a moat, just on its exterior, which was partly cut into the natural clay overlying the fluviatile sand bed. The other site, near Hanuman Garhi, yielded a good number of structures of the Northern Black Polished Ware and later periods, ringwells of more than one type, including the typical wells using wedge-shaped bricks, well-known during the later part of the Northern Black Polished Ware period.

While pursuing further Janmabhoomi trench the backside slope of structure assembled with demolished structural members and to the western side of this trench in the extended area the extension of pillar bases were noticed in 1976-77. The excavation yielded a rich crop of antiquities, among which about half a dozen seals, about seventy coins and over a hundred terracotta figurines deserve special mention. The most noteworthy among them are a terracotta sealing of king Vasudeva of the second century BCE, a coin of Muladeva of the same period, and a grey terracotta figurine of a person (Jaina Kevalin) with bald head, distended ear-lobes and in ‘kayotsarga’ pose. The last-mentioned object came from levels ascribable to circa fourth century BCE and is perhaps the earliest ‘Jaina’ figure of this kind so far found in India. After the early historic deposits, there is a break in occupation, with considerable debris and pit formations before the site was again occupied around the 11th century CE. Later medieval brick-and-kankar lime-floors were also noticed along with broken parts of temple remains.

The antiquity of Ayodhya, thus, on the basis of these excavations, is ascribable to the early seventh century BCE. Under renewed excavation in 2002-03, 82 trenches were laid out adjoining the earlier excavations in the Janmabhoomi area. The new archaeological evidence from Ayodhya noticed in 2003 and the comparative stratigraphy of the excavated sites which revealed pre-NBPW deposit has strengthened the Hindu myths and belief that the story of Rama and Ayodhya is earlier than the story of Krishna and Mahabharata and Hastinapur. The C14 dates obtained from this level put Ayodhya somewhere between c.1600-1250 BCE.

The critical evidence which became most contentious issue was of temple remains found under the mosque “as revealed by rows of fifty pillar bases and other remains of architectural parts of the temple”. Moreover the demolished parts of the temple were utilised even in the construction of mosque, as outlined by Justice Khan. The six pillar bases of a temple found in the earlier excavations by B.B. Lal (1976-77) are the part of 50 pillar bases. This evidence has put to rest that a temple was there right beneath the Babri Masjid.

 In India, no monumental structure fell unless broken/demolished or natural calamity. The demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992 or demolition of the Ram temple by Babur’s army after 1526 were not the part of this judicial verdict. One must understand the subject before giving any sweeping remarks. For example, an independent historian explaining that the ASI report is far from foolproof or inscription found in debris, may have been planted whereas a prominent media personality says that the findings of the ASI were incomplete at best and at worst, misleading. The role played by independent experts, historians and archaeologists, who appeared on behalf of the Sunni Waqf Board to support its claim, has come in for criticism by the Allahabad High Court, as one can see how the HC exposed experts espousing masjid cause. To the court’s astonishment, someone who wrote signed articles and issued pamphlets, found themselves withering under scrutiny and the judge said they were displaying an “ostrich-like-attitude” to facts.

To quote the High Court remarks, on the statement of one of the experts, who said that one couldn’t say that though I had made a statement but I am not responsible for its authenticity since it is not based on my study or research but what I have learnt from what others have uttered. Another expert admitted before the High Court that she prepared a report on the Babri dispute after reading newspaper reports and on the basis of discussions with medieval history experts in her department. Independent experts even crossed the limits of imagination by alleging that pillar bases at the excavated site had been planted’. The above narrative uncovers the fallacy surrounding the Babri mosque dispute and Ram Janmabhoomi, a legal battle started in 1885.

Actually being objective about the past, I would like to mention that Arnold Toynbee, a world known historian was invited to deliver Dr Maulana Azad Memorial lecture in 1960 where he quoted that Warsaw was taken over by Russian’s (1914-15) and they constructed an Eastern Orthodox Christian cathedral to remind them that the Russians were the rulers. In 1918 when Poland took over, it demolished this church.

I would not like to blame them for what happened, but I will appreciate that the Government of India took no action regarding the mosques erected by Aurangzeb after demolishing the temples at Mathura and Varanasi. The decision to take the legal recourse was a wise move and it helped find a way to correct a historical mistake without aggrieving any community and faith.

The author is former joint director general, Archaeological Survey of India, and general secretary, the Indian Archaeological Society, Delhi.

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“Don’t compete but change the rules”: Maneck Malhotra, Director, Choco Swiss

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Maneck Malhotra

Recently, Maneck Malhotra, the director of Choco Swiss, a designer chocolate giant in India, sat with NewsX for an exclusive interview. He shares with us his mantra of “Don’t compete but change the rules” as he talks about how he beats the competition in the Chocolate sector in India.

Maneck spoke with us about the journey he’s been on to get to this point, and the role his father, who founded the company had played. “I think my father was very ahead of his time. He was a Chartered Accountant in the UK, but then we came back to India so that the kids could have an Indian upbringing. We were the first ones to import equipment to design soft-centred chocolate. In India, most people just relate chocolate to bars, but we went beyond that.”

He also feels like the market has grown and matured a lot since his father founded the company, and that those changes will aid Choco Swiss’ success. “You know, in my father’s day, you didn’t have all these different airlines to transport chocolate in, there was just one, you didn’t have refrigerated truck either. There have been a lot of changes since my father’s day, and you know I think we’ve waited 30 years to be in a place where the market is well-placed for us, and I think we’re there now.”

We asked Maneck about the challenges he faced upon taking over the company from his father, and what competition is like, in India’s chocolate market. “Look I think, for the longest time, India was completely dominated by Cadbury, Nestle, Amul, etc. People just associated chocolate with those brands, and with those types of chocolates, so one of the major challenged for us was to get people to accept that chocolate with a gifting sentiment, could also be chocolate with a daily consumption use. For the longest time, my father based his sales strategy on gift packs, which created a mindset that we tried to change in our customers.”

Talking about the pandemic, and the challenges it created for Choco Swiss and the industry, Maneck was brutally honest. “I’ll be honest, it was quite difficult for us. We’re a good that is not a daily consumable good we’re based on lifestyle aspects, which the pandemic shut down. We’ve been increasing our digital presence because obviously customers can’t go to physical stores to buy our products anymore. We really had to take a step back, introspect and think about our digital strategy, and I think now that we’ve done that, we’ve come out stronger on the other end of it.”

He spoke about some of the new initiatives that Choco Swiss has been taking, with regards to their product line, but simultaneously, emphasized that value that they place on sticking to their roots. “Over 70% of our sales come from our basic classics, those have not changed in 30 years. We believe in sticking to our roots, but obviously, we do understand, that we need to keep innovating and keep offering the customer something new. With that in mind, we’re trying to enter into energy bars, we’re also going to be releasing some very quirky and unique and progressive blends soon in the future.”

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‘AI and blockchain data will revolutionize the world’, says Mayur Ramgir, an international award-winning innovator, founder of Zonopact, an incubator for young talent

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Mayur Ramgir

In an exclusive conversation with NewsX for its special segment NewsX A-list, an author, serial entrepreneur, film director and philanthropist, Mayur Rangir takes us through embracing technology for the better and how students and working professionals can have a better future in the tech world.

Mayur is the fellow of ‘The World Technology Network” and winner of the ” Pride of the Nation” award 2018. The JAVA expert shared his perspective on how technology is helping us survive this unprecedented time where businesses are suffering and people are losing jobs.

He said that this surely is a difficult time, not only for individuals but also businesses are struggling with it. They have the fear of uncertainty.’Even India’s GDP is hampered and GST collections are not enough’, he added. He mentioned that things are moving towards a new era, businesses are learning new ways of dealing with the situation.’6 months back companies were not ok with employees working from home, but now they have adapted with the change and have realised that the productivity of employees can go up with a little freedom’, the techie continued.

He feels that technology is going to go to the next level when hospitals will be automated and even workplaces will be completely touchless.

According to Mayur, technology is much more than just a cell phone and smart TVs. He says that with researches going on for implementing AI into our daily lives, AI and blockchain big data will revolutionise the world. They will mostly rule the next decade. Hence, changing tech in India in the coming years. He also asks students to look into courses where they can build their skill sets in this emerging world of technology.

He speaks about some new forward-thinking institutions like the London School of Emerging Technology and WilyNXT. The whole curriculum of these institutions is based on taking up real problems from industries and upcoming startups and make their students work on it. Working professionals can opt for professional certification in which they don’t have to quit their jobs and can go to London for a few weeks to do the course.

Lastly, the tech expert has a few suggestions for the students in this arena. He finds technology to be a funny area because one has to prepare themselves all the time with new technologies coming into the market every now and then. He urges the students to keep training themselves accordingly.’Early-career employees should think about upscaling their skills by joining professional courses offered by various institutions ’, he added. By following this, these employees will be ready for the jobs coming in the next generation.

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Hiren Gada, CEO of Shemaroo Entertainment discusses the changing nature of streaming services, digital content due to pandemic

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Hiren Gada

Mr Hiren Gada, CEO of Shemaroo Entertainment in a recent interview with NewsX discussed the changing nature of streaming services and digital content due to the pandemic.

Due to the closure of the movie theatres during the lockdown, it’s been an almost impossible feat to try and release new movies. Luckily for us, Shemaroo has come up with a solution. They have started a kind of pay-per-view model ShermarooMe to “open the window of monetisation and release of the film”.

ShemarooMe is a one-stop destination for authentic Indian content, starting from regional movied to Bollywood movies. The platform grew out of a necessity to “unlock the film’s journey and give the audience an opportunity to see fresh content”, Mr Gada said. “It’s a transaction product where you can buy a ticket and redeem it on a movie. You can then watch the movie for a period of three days as many times as you’d like”, he added. “It gives the audience the closest possible experience of a movie theatre as you buy a ticket from BookMyShow and then watch it.”

The place where it differs is that there is no limit on the number of people who can watch the movie and it’s wildly more economic. “We saw a huge surge in home entertainment consumption and so we launched a Hindi general entertainment channel in May which was put together during the lockdown.”, he stated. He went on to commend the team’s effort and grit, even during the trying times of the pandemic. Moreover, this channel was made free-to-air so that people wouldn’t have to pay for it.

Shemaroo Entertainment also worked with more than 30 temples to stream their artis live on their channels. They made this service completely free for their audience as well. “The idea here was to incentivise the people to ‘Stay at Home and Pray at Home’ and this really resonated with our audience”

Touching upon the future of regional digital content Mr Gada said, “ The audience prefer local and regional content and there has been a surge of original regional content. It’s an indication of a change in mass consumption. However, I am positive there is no replacement of the experience that a theatre provides”, said Hiren Gada, CEO, Shemaroo Entertainment.

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With expiry of lease, king’s kin seek return of AMU land

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With the land lease given to the Aligarh Muslim University having expired last year, the descendants of the Jat king, late Mahendra Pratap Singh (1886-1979), a freedom fighter and social reformer who donated land to various educational institutes, including the AMU, have demanded that the land be returned to them. The family also wants the university’s city school to be renamed after him.

The AMU executive council has set up a committee to look into the matter and submit its report.

The officials said that Mahendra Pratap Singh, who was an alumnus of the Mohammedan Anglo- Oriental College, which later became the AMU, had given 3.04 acres of land to the university on lease for constructing a school in 1929.

Singh’s great grandson, Charat Pratap Singh, said that they had served a legal notice to the university in 2018 about the expiry of lease. He said, “There were two pieces of land given by my great grandfather to the AMU for promoting education. We are donating the bigger chunk of land on which AMU’s city school is constructed and, in return, the school should be named after him.”

The former king’s family has asked for another small piece of land measuring 1.2 hectare to be returned to them. “They can return the land or compensate us at the current market price of the land,” Charat said.

In 2014, a controversy had erupted, when BJP MP Satish Gautam had asked the AMU to celebrate the 128th birth anniversary of the king on 1 December.

King Mahendra Pratap Singh’s great grandson, Charat Pratap Singh, said that they had served a legal notice to the university in 2018 about the expiry of lease.

The BJP had organised a small programme at its office in Aligarh and had got an assurance from the then vice-chancellor to hold a seminar on Singh later.

Last year, the state cabinet had cleared a proposal to set up a new university in Aligarh, named after King Mahendra Pratap Singh.

“He had given land for the purpose of establishing the university, but his name has not been mentioned on any plaque,” Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath had said during his election campaign in 2017 while promising to set up another university in Singh’s name.

Mahendra Pratap Singh, who set up a provisional government in exile in Afghanistan during World War I, was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1932. He was also elected to the second Lok Sabha (1957-62) as an independent candidate from Mathura defeating Bharatiya Jan Sangh’s Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who later became the Prime Minister.

With IANS inputs

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A DIGNIFIED PERIOD IN AN UNPRECEDENTED ERA

As the world grapples with Covid-19, one of the biggest challenges facing humanity, our resolve must be that such a crisis should not deepen the already existing gender inequities.

Ruma Bhargava & Megha Bhargava

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Covid-19 has brought many public health issues to the table which certainly is positive learning from the pandemic. This is a wake-up call to take cognizance of our inadequacies in the health infrastructure and delivery mechanisms, the lack of community awareness and the absence of linkages between health, education and poverty levels. We have risen to the occasion and the country has seen large-scale indigenous manufacturing of ventilators, PPEs and other protective equipment to weather this storm. WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) is being seen as the panacea to prevent the spread of the highly contagious coronavirus. This can be considered a watershed moment for public health in India. However, what has somehow not been at the heart of this discussion is the menstrual health of women in India. To date, there is no evidence of any direct impact of Covid-19 on the menstrual cycle, though it has been suggested that stress, anxiety and lack of proper nutrition can impact reproductive health.

As per UNICEF, an estimated 1.8 billion girls, women and gender non-binary persons in the world menstruate. The National Family Health Survey 2015-16 estimates the number of menstruating women in India to be about 336 million. Out of this, about 121 million (roughly 42 percent) women use sanitary napkins or other menstrual hygiene products. This means that even in normal times, women are deprived of good menstrual hygiene owing to cultural taboos, poverty, lack of awareness and inaccessibility of menstrual health products. These statistics can only worsen in crises like Covid-19. At Samarpann, when we started distributing ration and cooked meals to migrant workers and underprivileged people across India, we realised that a major issue women were grappling with was menstrual hygiene management. Due to the lockdown, the families had lost their sources of income from daily wages and the paltry savings which they had were utilised to purchase food and other things which ranked higher in priority than menstrual hygiene products. In the initial days, there was also the problem of the unavailability of menstrual products in the market because of depleting stocks fuelled by panic buying. The Karnataka and Telangana governments were among the first to include sanitary napkins on the list of essential goods.

Slums in Mumbai like Dharavi, with a population density of 2,77,136 people/ sq km, and others like Worli Kolivada, Deonar, etc, have shared water supply, toilets, bathing facilities and laundry sites and improper sewerage systems. In such a scenario, these high-density and poorly ventilated informal settlements not only pose the highest risk of the spread of the infection, it also makes it very difficult  to maintain good menstrual hygiene.

At a time when all of us are indebted to doctors and healthcare workers for their selfless service, we must also be aware of the menstrual needs of women medical and healthcare workers. As per the UN, 70 percent of healthcare workers in the world are women. Apart from the tasks of delivering healthcare, these women face additional challenges in managing their menstrual hygiene in these tough times. The issue came up with news from China, where healthcare workers faced immense difficulties in putting on and removing PPEs for changing sanitary pads, leading them to bleed into the protective suits. This would only worsen in the scenario of hospitals having an inadequate number of PPEs. The media also reported how many healthcare workers had suppressed their menstrual cycles using oral contraceptive pills.

This is the time when specialists all over the world are pondering seriously on public health issues and our preparedness to face any crisis. It is imperative that such a critical component of public health, that is menstrual health, should necessarily be included in the policy-making and be addressed in all the solutions to be implemented on the ground.

Currently, there is an overwhelming need to provide WASH facilities in slums and other deficient areas as well as ensuring regular water supply and separate WASH facilities for girls and women. While reaching out to underprivileged families, the inclusion of menstrual products should be ensured while distributing food and other items.

The administration should also ensure the availability of menstrual hygiene products in hospitals and quarantine centres for healthcare workers and patients along with enough PPEs for the doctors and staff. WASH facilities should be female-friendly and disabled-friendly, along with provisions for the safe disposal of menstrual waste. The schedule of healthcare workers should also be designed in a way that they have adequate breaks and remain hydrated during their working hours.

In times of scarcity, it is important to encourage several women self-help groups which are manufacturing low-cost sanitary napkins. There is also a need to encourage innovation in the menstrual hygiene space, with several start-ups already coming forward with ideas for reusable sanitary napkins which are cost-effective and environment-friendly. Samarpann has taken one such endeavour of supporting an SHG of 11 women in Changlang, Arunachal Pradesh, where we have undertaken the capacity augmentation of a reusable sanitary pad manufacturing unit. We are also buying back these pads and, in the first phase, distributing them to 500 women in remote villages in Arunachal Pradesh on the VHNDs (Village Health and Nutrition Days). Through this initiative, we are ensuring the livelihood of women in the aftermath of the lockdown and, at the same time, increasing the accessibility to environment-friendly menstrual hygiene products which will take care of their menstrual needs for a year. The reusable sanitary pads will also prevent plastic pollution by keeping close to 36,000 sanitary pads from entering landfills, thus, mitigating environmental and health risks.

This crisis can be turned into an opportunity where we bring neglected areas into the mainstream of the public health realm. We need to develop gender-sensitive policies and strategies and ensure the effective implementation of the same at the ground level. The response should also factor in the diversity of women in different communities which may have different education and awareness levels. When the world grapples with one of the biggest challenges facing humanity, our resolve must be that such a crisis should not deepen the already existing gender inequities.

Dr Ruma Bhargava is the founder of Samarpann. Dr Megha Bhargava is Deputy Commissioner, Income Tax, Mumbai. The views expressed are personal.

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How recent amendments in EIA norms make them prone to violations

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The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change issued the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) draft, 2020 on 23 March this year but made it available for public opinion on 11 April 2020. Normally, the time available for public opinion is 60 days. The publication of the draft in the gazette was delayed by 19 days due to Covid-19. So, when many people mailed to seek an extension to the mandatory 60-day window for pub- lic feedback, the ministry’s top brass thought it was fit to allow another 60 days until 10 August. But later limited the extension to 20 days. Objections were raised and matter led to a judi- cial intervention, and finally, the court extended the deadline.

Before going into the detailed analysis of the EIA draft, 2020, let us understand the EIA. It is defined as one of the environmental assessment tools being used worldwide to provide planners and concerned citizens with essential information to plan for harmonising developmental activities. It is a systematic analysis of projects to determine their potential environ- mental impacts and the significance of such impacts and to propose measures to mitigate the negative impacts. Historically speaking, India started the practice in 1976-77, when the Planning Commission asked the then Department of Science and Technology to examine the river valley projects from an environmental angle. This was subsequently extended to cover those projects which required approval of the ‘Public Investment Board’ such as industries, thermal power projects, mining schemes, etc.

Although the EIA was established to safeguard the environment, it has been observed that its process has become a façade of legal paperwork. In most of the cases, the reports are prepared by the professional private consultant agencies, authorised by the government. If the projects approved by them are found unfeasible, they are rarely held accountable. Lack of administrative capacity to ensure compliance often renders a long list of clearance conditions which are meaningless. Periodic amendments are exempting one category of industries or the other from scrutiny. These exemptions are mostly given under pressure. Developers complain that the EIA regime has dampened the spirit of liberalisation and only increased one additional step that takes additional time in completing the project.

The latest EIA draft gives more discretionary powers to bureaucrats and politicians, while limiting pub- lic engagement. If the government declares any project as “strategic”, then no information will be made available to public. This draft says no information on such projects shall be placed in the public domain. This opens a window for immediate clearance for any project deemed strategic without any explanation. Projects concerning national defence and security are naturally strategic. It exempts linear projects such as roads and pipelines in border areas from following EIA norms and it will not
require any public hearing. “Area falling within 100 km of aerial distance from the Line of Actual Control with bordering countries of India” is defined as the “border area”. This would cover much of the North- east, the repository of the country’s richest biodiversity. All inland waterways projects, expansions/widening of national highways will be exempted from any prior clearance.

The most concerning issue of this draft is the post facto clearance which means projects which are al- ready operating in violation of the Environment Act will now be able to apply for clearance. It is a reappearance of a March 2017 notification for projects operating without clearance. Violators just need to pay 1.5-2 times “the ecological damage assessed and economic benefit derived due to violation” for remediation and resource augmentation. For such late applications, a developer will have to cough up Rs 2,000-Rs 10,000 per day for the period of delay. The impact of this can be considered with the example of illegal miners who are mining several trucks every day.

On 1 April, in Alembic Pharmaceuticals Ltd versus Rohit Prajapati & Ors case, the Supreme Court held that environment law cannot countenance the notion of an ex post facto clearance. This would be contrary to both the precautionary principle as well as the need for sustainable development. The violations can only be reported by the government officials or the violator himself, excluding the pub- lic from the process. It has extended the construction permit area required from earlier 20,000 sq m to 150,000 sq m. Conclusively, it is apparent from the above discussion how important EIA is if implemented properly but the recent amendments in the EIA norms make them prone to violations.

Environment is an issue that is always taken for granted in our country. People’s memory is very short. We forget the disasters very soon and never learn any lesson from our past. The recent Visakhapatnam gas leak case and the Assam gas and oil leak case were the results of the EIA norms violation. People should send their objections to the ministry within the stipulated time. Collective intelligence is considered to be powerful, so should be the collective objection.

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