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Opinion

Desirous of jobs but devoid of skills

Formal institutions of vocational education need to be developed and strengthened to meet the demand of each sector by offering standardised programmes of acceptable employability.

Ved Prakash

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The traditional Indian way of human resource development, particularly in vocational sectors, has largely been non-formal in character. Farmers, craftsmen, potters, weavers, masons, carpenters, carpet makers, toy makers, goldsmiths, cobblers, painters, and a host of other such skilled workers learn their crafts and acquire knowledge and skills by participating from the early years of their lives in various occupational activities. Such workers undertake these activities in the form of apprenticeship and acquire skills on the job. The training they receive is so invaluable that it helps them acquire proficiency of a fairly good level in the shortest possible time. Additionally, this system inculcates cultural values, social norms and wisdom, which have their own significance. Although this system has been in vogue and is likely to stay in the future, it suffers from certain drawbacks. Some of them are the lack of infrastructure and material, lack of quality in terms of skills and standards, lack of equivalence with formal education and training programmes in the concerned areas, acquisition of a limited range of skills and the absence of a system of accredited certification needed for career mobility.

The traditional system is also not able to meet requirements fully in terms of the number and the quality of products. Consequently, a majority of children learning through the system are not able to find alternative employment. On the other hand, higher academic education is creating a class of individuals desirous of jobs but devoid of skills. This is primarily due to lack of an interface between institutions and industries. This calls for the restructuring of the present system in such a way that it begins producing human resources with the desired levels of skill and competence. Formal institutions of vocational education, therefore, need to be developed and strengthened to meet the demand of each sector by offering standardised programmes of acceptable employability. Considerable thought has been given to this aspect in independent India but with pint-sized success.

A lot of attempts have been made to see the success of vocational education as an integral part of school education, but results have been lukewarm. The history of vocational education in post-Independence India can be traced to the report of the Mudaliar Commission (1952-53). Notwithstanding telling recommendations, it did not lead to any worthwhile results and the scheme remained a non-starter more or less. The issue was taken up again in right earnest by the Kothari Commission (1964-66) which suggested the streaming of higher secondary education into distinct academic and vocational streams. This recommendation was pursued with great care and transparency but experience tells us that the success rate has been quite appalling for a variety of reasons including public perception about the mediocrity of vocational programmes as compared to academic programmes. It was found to be quite prevalent in the surging middle-class population which wishes to see their wards become doctors and engineers rather than apprentices.

Skill and knowledge are the driving forces for economic growth and social development in a country. In a growing economy with a vast and ever-increasing population like ours, the problem is twofold. On one hand, there is an acute shortage of trained quality labour, and on the other, a large section of the population which possesses little or low job skills. Consequently, there is a peculiar situation in the country. While large segments of our youth remain unemployed or underemployed, there are emerging job positions both at lower and middle levels for which suitably equipped personnel are not available. Careers in healthcare, office management, medical record transcriptions, technical writing, advertising, the automobile industry, hospitality, printing and publishing industries, call centres, to mention a few, are receiving increased attention. There is a huge problem of mismatch between education and employment. Over-qualified candidates, in large numbers, are often found seeking jobs in the lower ranks of services.

India can no longer afford any slippage in new skill development initiatives which would ensure the success of vocational education. As the economy continues to transform, large-scale sectoral shifts in the working population are inevitable, particularly from agriculture to other sectors of the economy. These sectors would, however, require significantly different and often specialist skill sets which would obviously require training and skill development. Realising this, the Government of India, through various agencies, is progressing and focusing on developing skills. The various initiatives and steps taken by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, National Skill Development Agency and National Skill Development Corporation have formulated several initiatives to bridge the gap between demand and supply of a skilled workforce, thereby setting the foundation for contributions to nation building. Although India has now a determined approach to provide skilled youth with the tools to contribute to their own career and the country’s socio-economic development, some of the initiatives require a greater focus.

The goal of skilling five hundred million youth in the country can be realised if the Skill Development and Education Ministries establish greater levels of coordination. They need to appreciate that such a situation is best handled not outside the schooling and university system but within those systems. Handling vocational education requires inputs from different domains of knowledge which can be available within the premises of schools and universities.

Since vocational education is a continuum from the school stage onwards, there is a need to underscore some specific concerns. First there is a need to identify context-specific vocational programmes, including vocational programmes for which the eligibility should be higher secondary pass and programmes which would require the background of a university degree. Second, there is a need to specify the requirement of infrastructure in relation to vocational programmes in terms of facilities for workshops and hands-on-experience in an industry or a related institution. Third, there is also a need to identify which programmes could be offered in conventional institutions and which would require a stand-alone institution. Fourth, the curriculum of the programmes may be visualised in such a manner that it has four distinct parts namely life skills, work skills, internship and preparation of employment. Fifth, the course content and training component of the programmes may be so designed that they promote creativity, analytical ability and flexibility. Sixth, all programmes may be made part of the community, for the community and by the community. These are the issues which call for strengthening of the existing vocational programmes and introduction of more relevant programmes besides their expansion throughout the length and breadth of the country.

Vocational education at different stages of education as envisaged in the National Education Policy (NEP), 2020 is the need of the hour in the context of the problems of unemployment and underemployment. The need of vocational education gets further accentuated on account of the high percentage of exclusion and elimination from the formal system of education. Issues such as these can be addressed at a faster pace if the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship works in close collaboration with the Ministry of Education.

The goal of skilling five hundred million youth in the country can be realised if both the ministries establish greater levels of coordination. They need to appreciate that such a situation is best handled not outside the schooling and university system but within those systems. Handling vocational education requires inputs from different domains of knowledge which can be available within the premises of schools and universities. Moreover, the basis of the success of any programme as a part of education is largely dependent upon the feeder from the lower stages of the education system. If the foundation laid as part of school education is not strong, it will have its effect on the success of the program as a subject in the domain of higher education.

Therefore, it is extremely important to make strong efforts for vocational programmes to be nurtured in educational institutions jointly by both the Ministries in close coordination with the industry. The success of vocational education would eventually depend upon the interface between the skill providers and the industry. The bottom line is that this linkage needs to be institutionalised towards the success of better employability of pass-outs by the two systems coming closer to each other.

The writer is former Chairman, UGC. The views expressed are personal.

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Opinion

Poverty not a curse, sterling efforts needed to be wealthy

Mukesh Ambani has added a feather to India’s cap by figuring among the richest in the world.

Vijay Darda

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Let me tell you a story of Mukesh Ambani’s vision. Reliance Group has a huge petroleum refinery in Jamnagar, Gujarat. A large area was lying barren around it. Mukesh Ambani felt that if trees and plants are planted on this land, the pollution of the refinery can be absorbed. When Mukesh Ambani decided to plant mango orchard on 600 acres of barren land, people harboured serious reservations about the success of his project.

The soil of Jamnagar and the moisture there has salinity and the winds blow at a high velocity too. In such a situation, would it be right to plant a mango orchard? This was the question in everyone’s mind, but Mukesh Ambani had decided and insisted that only mango orchard would be planted there. That was in 1997. Today, after 23 years, the salinity of the soil has been controlled, the winds have been taken care of and there are more than 1.5 lakh mango trees of about 200 species. Mangoes from this orchard are being exported all over the world because of its unmatched quality. The name of this mango orchard in Jamnagar is ‘Dhirubhai Ambani Lakhibag Amrayee’. For your information, let me tell you that the word ‘Lakhibag’ was the name of a mango grove developed by Mughal Emperor Akbar near Darbhanga in Bihar.

I told you this story so that you can understand how important it is to have vision, devotion and dedication to your work to become rich. After all, Dhirubhai Ambani started his journey from zero and built a big empire on his own. After that, one of his two sons raised his empire and the other collapsed on the ground. It is clear from this that even if you get a huge wealth by luck, you do not necessarily climb the stairs of success. It takes strength, concentration and balance to climb. Just one mistake is enough to fall! Let’s just think of Tata-Birla, Ambani-Adani, Hinduja, L N Mittal or Sajjan Jindal, Singhania, Anand Mahindra, you will find that their family started from zero. Infosys is an excellent example of our times. Narayan Murthy had laid the foundation of Infosys with a capital of only Rs 10,000. Adani started from the very bottom. Today, their success stories are for all to see. It is obvious that all this does not happen by sheer luck. For this, action and vision are required.

Many people continue to criticise industrial and business groups indiscriminately. Be it Ambani group or Adani group or someone else. People do not miss any chance to say that the government has always been ‘favourable’ to them. To me, these are all stupid and meaningless outpouring. No one can become ‘Kuber’ only with ‘favours’. For that, capacity needs to be increased manifold. Do not discuss what kind of house Ambani lives in, by which aircraft he travels, how many vehicles he has and how the wedding took place in his house. If at all, discuss that Ambani has given work to millions of hands. India has advanced in the world of technology. Do you know that while some people swindled Rs 15 lakh crore of the banks, Mukesh Ambani does not owe a single rupee to any bank! Consider why Mukesh Ambani flourishes in every sector he enters? Be thankful to all these industrialists that they have played and are playing an important role in the country’s progress. When I see the tricolour waving at The Pierre, a Taj Hotel in New York, my chest swells with pride. Isn’t it a matter of pride that Tata bought a global brand like Land Rover?

I have close proximity to almost all the industrialists I am referring to here and I know their lifestyle very closely. Humility, spontaneity and focus are their greatest assets. They have not become rich in a day. They have achieved this position through hard work. Therefore, do not curse poverty. Poverty is not a curse at all. Poverty can be transformed into prosperity by sterling actions and efforts. I know hundreds of such administrative officers who were born in a poor family but are occupying high posts today. Babasaheb Ambedkar was also poor but due to his talent, he is remembered with reverence all over the world today. Our former President APJ Abdul Kalam is the biggest example of this. His father was a fisherman and Kalam used to sell ‘beedis’ as a child. He became the best scientist in the world and also adorned the country’s highest position. Lal Bahadur Shastri rose from poverty to become the Prime Minister of the country. M S Kannamwar who once sold newspapers, became the chief minister of Maharashtra. People like Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg have also risen from the state of extreme poverty to reach the summit. Former presidents of America, Bill Clinton or Barack Obama, hailed from very humble origins. Elsewhere across the world, there have been many prime ministers, presidents, industrialists, great writers and scientists who were born poor, but they overcame their poverty through their ability and reached the top. So don’t accept poverty as a curse, take your steps, develop your potential. Success is waiting for you! The need of the hour is dedication, out-of-the-box thinking and perseverance… So what are you waiting for!

The author is the chairman, Editorial Board of Lokmat Media and former member of Rajya Sabha. vijaydarda@lokmat.com

I congratulate Mukesh Bhai that he has not only joined the select list of wealthiest persons in the world with his devotion, dedication and vision but also made the country proud. True, if the capabilities are utilised to the full, one can scale the summit. Mukesh Bhai has proved his mettle and ability in every field.

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Opinion

Making it happen: Mission Kayakalp

Crackdowns and raids on illicit liquor makers and sellers in UP’s Barabanki district revealed some bitter truths. Many of those being arrested would go right back to their ‘trade’ after release. And, most of those involved were stuck in this trade due to lack of alternative sources of income.

Anil Swarup

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Illicit liquor is a massive social, economic and law enforcement nightmare across India. It has been known to destroy innumerable lives by death, criminal conviction, disability and addiction apart from ruining livelihoods, families and health. The brunt of this evil is most intensely felt by the poor and illiterate classes.

In January this year Dr Aravind Chaturvedi was posted as the Superintendent of Police of Barabanki, a district of UP adjoining its capital city Lucknow. Barabanki is a prosperous district but it has some great challenges. It is notorious for narcotics and illicit liquor. Hence, the first priority for Aravind on being posted there was to curb these criminal activities. 

Crackdowns and raids on illicit liquor makers and sellers across the district, revealed some bitter truths. Many of those being arrested would go right back to their ‘trade’ after release. And, most of those involved were stuck in this trade due to lack of alternative sources of income. Ironically, a few villages had almost all residents involved in illicit liquor making. The issues were discussed were discussed at length with colleagues. On ascertaining the details, they were able to spot a few villages which were worst affected. One of the places with highest concentration of such cases was a small village of Chaynpurwa in Ramnagar tehsil of the district. This became the centre of the initiative.

Chaynpurwa is a remote village, cut-off from the nearby suburbs on account of being surrounded by the expansive Bhagahar Lake on three sides. The people here had lost a lot to the illicit liquor trade. Out of the 94 families of this village, 32 women were widows. Only 6 men in the entire village were in a condition to work. The others were in jail, handicapped or heavily addicted. Most children didn’t go to school and those who did, faced economic hurdles and social stigmas. It was a painful sight.

Uplifting a village out of poverty is a difficult task, but lifting one out of the grip of crime and poverty is a much bigger challenge. Rehabilitation that was not considered a part of Police’s regular duty was initiated. It was initially frowned upon. However, soon the thought behind it and the prospect of improving the lives of people of an entire village came to be appreciated. The initiative soon got wholehearted support.

The first step was to organise a “Police Chaupal”, a gathering of all residents of Chaynpurwa and nearby villages, hosted by the local Police and attended by Aravind himself and Circle Officer, Ramnagar along with Inspector, Ramnagar. Villagers were given opportunity to speak about their problems, compulsion towards illicit liquor trade and socio-economic challenges. The stories that came out of the meeting were painful and heart-wrenching. “Mission Kayakalp” started taking shape consequent to this meeting

A survey of the village was conducted in Chaynpurwa village to obtain basic data about the village and its residents. This survey provided critical insights into the state of the village and its people. With the exception of 4 families which had at least one employed member, 90 of the village’s 94 families needed immediate assistance if they were to be emancipated from illicit liquor trade.

Priority now was to come up with a suitable, sustainable and circumstantially practical occupation alternative. A series of discussions with District Magistrate of Barabanki Dr Adarsh Singh, a passionate leader and Chief development Officer Medha Roopam, a bright officer brought forth a few options. Out of these, beekeeping seemed an appropriate and practicable choice. The villagers were briefed about this. A training session was arranged for them. Support also came from bank authorities who promised to provide loans. 

Dr Adarsh Singh’s support for Mission Kayakalp and his personal interest and backing to the initiative gave Chaynpurwa Village the attention and resources of 26 Government departments under the district administration. Medha Roopam herself went to the village with officials from various departments to make the residents of Chaynpurwa aware about Government schemes and programmes and provided eligible persons all the benefits.

The above events took place during the period between mid-August and mid-October this year. Bee farming in North India starts only after mid-November. Hence, an idea was mooted to help them generate some interim income through making and selling candles for the upcoming Diwali festival. This initiative was started and sponsored by Barabanki Police but Nimit Singh, an empathetic entrepreneur who owned bee farms, honey processing units and honey export played an important role

Nimit provided the women of Chaynpurwa training and raw-materials to make various types of diyas from bee-wax. The sale of these Diyas soared beyond expectations and close to 5 lakh diyas were sold in the weeks leading to Diwali. With a total amount over Rs 6 lakh earned by the village from these diyas in one month, an average income of Rs 7,000 was received by almost every household in the village. A grand “Deepotsav” was organised in collaboration with Umeed Foundation of Lucknow to honour and recognise the self-awareness and inspirational hard work done by the people of Chaynpurwa. For them it was an ecstatic moment to be the centre of focus of a program at such a scale and in the presence of top authorities.

The plan, alongside setting up bee-farming infrastructure, is to get a Community Hall built in the village so that a common space may be available for conducting training programs and provide an organised working area. Another plan on the anvil is to try and direct the energy of young children of this village in a positive, productive direction by arranging holistic orientations, building an open gym or recreation centre and motivate them to be diligent towards education. On the economic front with a long-term horizon, efforts are being made to attract the schemes of UP Government’s Khadi and Village Industries Board to provide a stable source of income to the village. These will include training them on electric pottery machines known as “Electric Chaak”, developing a stitching unit or a Agarbatti and candle making unit.

Setting up of a ‘trust’ by the name of “Chaynpurwa Kayakalp Foundation”, consisting of motivated private individuals for the welfare of villages like Chaynpurwa is also being planned. The objective is to provide sustainability to the project. Chaynpurwa village is on a path to turn its life around, look to a bright future and produce good law-respecting citizens. 

The initiatives taken by Aravind clearly demonstrate that despite enormous hurdles, if an officer so desires, she/he can make-it-happen.

Anil Swarup has served as the head of the Project Monitoring Group, which is currently under the Prime Minister’s Office. He has also served as Secretary, Ministry of Coal and Secretary, Ministry of School Education.

Uplifting a village out of poverty is a difficult task, but lifting one out of the grip of crime and poverty is a much bigger challenge. Rehabilitation that was not considered a part of police’s regular duty was initiated. It was initially frowned upon. However, soon the thought behind it and the prospect of improving the lives of people of an entire village came to be appreciated. The initiative soon got wholehearted support.

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Opinion

States must stop talking about lockdowns

Joyeeta Basu

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lockdown

Voices are coming from certain states that it’s time for another lockdown, possibly partial, to tackle the rising number of Covid cases. It is hoped that such thoughts will stay at the level of contemplation and will not translate into reality, especially when economic activities are finally starting to pick up after a prolonged lockdown-induced slump. In fact, this whole argument about cases multiplying needs to be assessed carefully, especially since except for a handful of states—particularly Delhi, Kerala and Maharashtra—the numbers are anything but “humongous”. The active Covid cases in a country with a billion-plus population is fewer than 4.5 lakh—443,486, to be precise, on Tuesday. If the number of people affected has crossed the 90 lakh-mark, it must also be recognised that over 85 lakh of those infected have recovered, with the recovery rate being 93.68%. And while even one death is a huge loss, and here more than a lakh lives have been lost, the fatality rate is as low as 1.46%, which is among the lowest in the world. The problem is indeed “humongous” in Delhi (40,212 active cases), Kerala (65,982) and Maharashtra (82,521). Delhi’s (population 1.9 crore) figures are particularly worrying, considering the number of its active cases is nearly double that of a state as populous as Uttar Pradesh (23,806 active cases and 20.4 crore population). Hence, Delhi needs special efforts to control the pandemic—but barring shutdowns. However, why will a state like Gujarat, with 13,600 active cases, impose night curfews in four of its cities, including Ahmedabad, which has 2,906 active cases? It defies logic.

This piece is not advocating taking the risk of Covid-19 lightly. If infected patients require hospitalisation and intensive care, it can have a debilitating impact on household finances. Also, there is a great degree of uncertainty about the way the infection is affecting people of all age groups, particularly those with co-morbidities. However, there is also enough anecdotal evidence to suggest that in a majority of cases, home quarantine and a combination of medicines are proving to be effective, resulting in recovery. Responsible social behaviour—including wearing masks, washing hands and social distancing—is a must to avoid the infection, but it must come naturally, and not be enforced. Also, fear mongering about the infection hitting India in waves and causing untold devastation is best avoided. India has successfully defied all predictions of “apocalypse” by analysts based on foreign shores and there is no reason to believe that it will not do so in the future as well. Even the World Health Organization is saying that community transmission of the virus has not taken place in India—what we are witnessing are clusters of infection. While it is not pleasant learning to live with the virus, but that’s exactly what seems to be happening—which also explains the “teeming millions” at public places.

While the wait for the vaccine is supposed to be getting over, it is not yet known how effective the vaccine will be, given the rapidity with which the virus is mutating; more importantly, how soon the vaccine can be reached to the 1.3 billion people of this country. It cannot happen inside a few weeks, or even months, or perhaps even years. What happens in the intervening period? The fact is, the therapy route is proving to be effective in India and even before the vaccine reaches all Indians, we could well be on our way to gain herd immunity. In the meanwhile, lives and livelihoods cannot be shut down. Things will have to come back to normal, soon, else there will be disaster—in real terms. So, all talk of curfew and lockdown must be avoided.

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Opinion

Why India needs to rethink its Tibet policy, if there’s one

A look at the US’s recognition of the Tibetan government-in-exile makes one question why India does not build a more formal and meaningful relationship with the Land of Snows, especially given how the two share a significant cultural, religious and sentimental bond.

Claude Arpi

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On 20 November, the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) proudly announced that its Sikyong (president), Lobsang Sangay, had entered the White House. Dharamsala called it “a historic feat”, the first time that the CTA head was invited into the White House. In November, Sangay had already been invited to the State Department to meet Robert Destro, the Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues. The fact that the building was not the White House, but the Eisenhower Executive Building next door is just a detail.

The Tibetan government-in-exile, which has so far not been recognised by any country, was often in the past denied entry to the US Administration buildings. “The logic for both denials was that the US government does not recognise the Tibetan government-in-exile. Today’s visit amounts to an acknowledgement of both the democratic system of the CTA and its political head,” said a CTA press release.

Whether it amounts to a virtual recognition of the Tibetan government or not can be argued. It is, however, certain that the outgoing US President, who will soon leave his job (and his house), is keen to put his successor in front of as many fait-accomplis as possible.

Whether the visit ‘next-door’ is a positive development for Tibet or not, only the future will tell. However, one wishes that the South Block would start meeting regularly with the Dalai Lama and the CTA officials. It would certainly be far more meaningful for the future of Tibet (even if Dharamsala does not realise this). Why was the visit of Foreign Secretary Harsh Vardhan Shringla to Dharamsala in July kept hush-hush and local journalists asked to not publish any photos? Why so much unnecessary discretion? 

Interestingly, a few days before Sangay’s visit to the White House, the US House of Representatives passed a resolution (H. Res. 697): “Affirming the significance of the advocacy for genuine autonomy for Tibetans in the People’s Republic of China and the work His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama has done to promote global peace, harmony, and understanding.” Among other things, the Resolution said that “it would be beneficial to convene a bipartisan, bicameral forum… between Members of Congress and His Holiness the Dalai Lama to discuss peaceful solutions to international conflicts”. On 18 November, during the debate, Representative Ted Yoho also strongly criticised Beijing for violating the Tibetans’ religious freedom: “the CCP sees Tibet culture and religious heritage as a threat to its control”.

Some parts of the US legislation should trigger a re-thinking of India’s Tibet policy (not sure if Delhi has one!). Take the example of the US Statement of Policy on Reincarnation of Dalai Lama: “The wishes of the 14th Dalai Lama, including any written instructions, should play a determinative role in the selection, education, and veneration of a future 15th Dalai Lama.” Why can’t South Block simply state that it will support all the decisions taken by the Dalai Lama in the matter of his reincarnation and will welcome the 15th Dalai Lama as an honoured guest of India, like the present pontiff has been since 1959. It is not necessary to go into details like the US Resolution does.

Then, regarding the preservation of the Tibetan plateau’s environment and water resources, the US bill “recognises the key role of Tibetan plateau as it contains glaciers, rivers, grasslands, and other geographical and ecological features that are crucial for supporting vegetation growth and biodiversity, regulating water flow and supply for an estimated 1.8 billion people.” America is far away, but it is India which will suffer the brunt of the climate change on the Third Pole and the intensive damming on the Roof of the World. It is a great pity that Delhi keeps mum on the subject.

The US appointment of a Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues is worth thinking about for India, though the post should be more holistic in its definition and the officer should be able to deal with not only the Ministry of External Affairs, but also the Ministries of Home Affairs, Culture, Education or Defence in order to coordinate a new Tibetan policy.

Section 618 of the US legislation speaks of ‘Diplomatic representation relating to Tibet’: “The Secretary [of State] should seek to establish a United States consulate in Lhasa, Tibet”. The rationale is given: “(1) to provide consular services to United States citizens traveling in Tibet; and (2) to monitor political, economic, and cultural developments in Tibet.” It is crucial for India to have a similar policy.

In 1947, India inherited from the British a full-fledged mission in Lhasa. An ICS officer, Hugh Richardson, served as the first head of the Indian mission, but was replaced in August 1950 by a bright young Chinese-speaking IFS officer, Sumul Sinha. Unfortunately (and unwisely), the Prime Minister discreetly downgraded the Mission into a Consulate General in 1952. Thereafter, it remained so till December 1962, when, for unknown reasons, South Block decided to close it down. I have spent several years trying to find out why it was closed, but I have no answer till date. Maybe foolishness and panic were the causes for it.

The fact that the Ministry of External Affairs keeps the history of the crucial two years before the Sino-Indian conflict inaccessible to the Indian public does not help understand what really happened in the months preceding October 1962. For example, who in India knows that the Indian Consul General in Lhasa was practically kept under house-arrest for thirteen months before and during the border war and that there was no retaliation or even complaint from the Government of India? Another example is how the last Indian Consul could not even visit the Potala during his tenure in Lhasa. The reasons mentioned by Dr P.K. Banerjee—that the Chinese Consulates in Mumbai and Kolkata were causing problems—can’t be taken seriously. 

The presence of an Indian Consul General in Lhasa could have helped to accelerate the process of the repatriation of the nearly 4,000 Indian PoWs, or, at least, put some pressure on the Chinese Government to release them. But was Delhi even interested?

Decades later, India tried to reopen the Lhasa Consulate, but in vain. In the 2000s, Shivshankar Menon, who served as Ambassador in Beijing and Foreign Secretary, is said to have played a pivotal role in this effort, but it is obvious that it was easier to hurriedly close the mission in December 1962, than to reopen it. Incidentally, Nepal still has a representative in Lhasa today.

Without copying the US, this is something that Delhi should insist on. It is India’s legitimate right due its old cultural, religious, sentimental affinity with the Land of Snows.

The writer is a French-born author, journalist, historian, Tibetologist and China expert. The views expressed are personal.

The Tibetan government-in-exile, which has so far not been recognised by any country, was often in the past denied entry to the US Administration buildings. ‘The logic for both denials was that the US government does not recognise the Tibetan government-in-exile. Today’s visit amounts to an acknowledgement of both the democratic system of the CTA and its political head,’ said a CTA press release.

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Legally Speaking

Long-term battle of arbitral awards with reference to the Vodafone case

The American Constitution constitutes a similar provision prohibiting ex-post-facto laws both by Central and state legislatures. It’s been more than 70 years since India became a democracy, still there is debate regarding the retrospective legislation in taxation laws.

Bahvuk Narula & Rachi Gupta

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The art of taxation consists of so plucking the goose to obtain the largest amount of feathers with the smallest amount of hissing.

—Jean Baptiste Colbert

PREFACE

In India, arbitration is always criticised due to Court interferences. However, recent judicial decisions show that Indian Courts are adopting a minimal interference model. This would help India globally to make a mark in the field of arbitration. In this never-ending process of court trials, challenging the awards in tribunals is a trend now here we can take the example of the same from the landmark case of Vodafone International Holdings B.V. v. Union of India & Anr. The enforcement of foreign awards is always being hard in India due to the regressive approach of the judiciary, which can be seen in judgments like NAFED v. Alimenta S.A. and Venture Global Eng. L.L.C. v. Tech Mahindra. These judgments are undoubtedly acting as a huge stumbling block in the enforcement of foreign awards.

VODAFONE JUDGMENT AT GLANCE

In the landmark judgment of Vodafone, where the Indian income tax authorities passed an order for payment of $2.2 billion by claiming that this is a case of transferring the Indian assets and therefore, such transfer was taxable in India. But later the Supreme Court held that this is not covered within the meaning of Section 2(14) of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and quashed the demand of INR 120 billion by way of capital gains tax and also directed a refund of INR 25 billion just after that Income Tax Act (2012 Amendment) was brought in introducing two explanations in Section 9(1)(i) of the Income Tax Act, 1961 in this way virtually amending the law to ensure that cross-border transactions such as the $11.08 billion Vodafone-Hutchison deal are taxable. This amendment was challenged in the Permanent Court of Arbitration at Hague under India – Netherlands Bilateral Investment Treaty.

This retrospective amendment was widely criticized across the globe and made India an unpopular destination for investments. The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) quashed the income tax department’s demand on the ground of violation of the fair and equitable treatment standard. It is also observed that India violated the bilateral investment treaty with the Netherlands by retrospectively amending the law and directed India to reimburse legal costs of approximately INR 850 million to Vodafone. The Vodafone award stimulates critical issues for foreign investors investing in India. This award negates India’s position on investment treaties that tax disputes do not come under the ambit of investment treaties. The discrepancy arises from the Vodafone case in which the Solicitor General of India has recommended the government of India to challenge the arbitral award and declared parliamentary legislation of a competent Parliament of a sovereign nation to be non-est and unenforceable. On the contrary, the Attorney General clearly expressed his inability to be involved in the case and he is in favour of accepting all well-reasoned awards instead of challenging every award.

The Indian Government has not decided their move yet but as each coin has two sides so each direction towards challenging the award will lead to the question of law regarding the power of the arbitration tribunal to declare parliamentary legislation to be non-est and unenforceable. India has sovereign powers to amend its laws with a prospective effect and in the present case; the transaction was between two non-resident entities through a contract executed outside India which has no nexus with the underlying assets in India.

JUDICIAL & LEGAL DICTUM IN THIS REGARD

The Indian legislature has the power to make prospective laws, but Article 20 of The Indian Constitution, 1950 provides certain parameters for the same. Article 20(1) imposes a limitation on the law-making power of the legislature regarding retrospective criminal liability. There is anarchy in the imposition of retrospective civil liability too.

As article 20(1) of the Indian Constitution provides that;

“no person shall be convicted of any offense except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offense, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offense.”

The American Constitution also constitutes a similar provision prohibiting ex-post-facto laws both by Central and State Legislatures. It’s been more than 70 years since India became a democracy still there is debate regarding the retrospective legislation in taxation laws.

India has a long term judicial approach regarding retrospective legislation and the landmark case is CIT v. Vatika Township Private Limited, in this case, the Constitutional Bench of Apex Court provided clarity on prospective versus retrospective operation of tax amendments. Moreover, a piece of legislation is presumed not to be intended to have a retrospective operation here the ratio is that the current laws should govern current activities (Principle of lex prospicit non respicit: The Law looks forward and not backward). This case also considered the principle of fairness and leads to the principle of lex non-cogit ad impossibilia – the law does not compel a man to perform what he cannot possibly perform. The ruling concluded that in determining whether a provision is applicable prospectively or retrospectively, attention would be required to be paid to the language of the amending statute, the legislature’s intent, the memorandum to the relevant Finance Act, and the hardship the amendment would cause to the taxpayer. Similarly in the case of CIT v. NGC Networks (India) Pvt. Ltd. held that in the case of retrospective amendment the payer could not have contemplated TDS. Along with that regarding enforcement of arbitral awards, in the case of Govt. of India v. Vedanta Ltd, the court held that-

“enforcement might be rejected just on the off chance that it disregards the State’s most essential thoughts of profound quality and equity, which has been deciphered to imply that, there ought to be incredibly faltering in the declining requirement, except if it is gotten through dishonour or fraud, or unjustifiable methods”

By way of this judgment, the Court reduces the decline of enforcement of foreign arbitral awards and minimizes judicial intervention. The court also observes that the government must change its approach regarding challenging every arbitral award and should adopt an approach that encourages foreign companies to invest in India. It will help India in achieving status as a global arbitration hub.

WAY FORWARD TOWARD ARBITRATION

Today tax uncertainty is a growing cause of concern for foreign investors. Now India is facing criticism owing to the Vodafone award, the question arises whether India would lead to ensuring tax certainty and a stable environment to boost investment hand in hand or not. The scope of investment treaty arbitrations is very bleak and now we have two directions firstly that the Supreme Court of India overturns the decision of the Indian courts regarding non-applicability of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 to investment treaty arbitrations, Secondly the legislature can either amend the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 to include enforcement of Bilateral Treaty Awards within its scope or to establish an entire regime for investment protection. In today’s time, the correlation between Bilateral Investment Treaties and foreign investment is required and we can adopt any approach given upwards to achieve this goal. Bilateral Investment Treaties have a positive role in promoting foreign investment and Investor-State dispute settlement provisions are important factors too in contributing to foreign investment inflows. India is planning a new law to safeguard foreign investment. It also helps us to speed up dispute resolution and to boost stuttering domestic growth.

The scope of investment treaty arbitrations is very bleak and now we have two directions: First, that the Supreme Court of India overturns the decision of the Indian courts regarding non-applicability of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 to investment treaty arbitrations; Second, the legislature can either amend the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 to include enforcement of Bilateral Treaty Awards within its scope or to establish an entire regime for investment protection. In today’s time, the correlation between Bilateral Investment Treaties and foreign investment is required and we can adopt any approach given upwards to achieve this goal.

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Opinion

The centre must address Punjab farmers’ concerns

Pankaj Vohra

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The agitating Punjab farmers have lifted the rail blockade following the intervention of Chief Minister Amarinder Singh, who was able to convince them that their action had resulted in immense financial loss to the state as well as contributed to the hardships faced by common citizens. The imbroglio was broken when the Chief Minister spoke to the kisan leaders who wanted the Centre to have a re-look at the farm laws that were enacted in a tearing hurry during the last Parliament session. In fact, if the Union government steps in and gives the required assurances to the farmers, the increasing unrest can be contained on time.

Amarinder Singh has, in the meantime, urged the Centre to restore all Punjab-bound trains to placate the people and create an atmosphere where some kind of rational dialogue can be initiated. The passage of the Bills by both Houses of Parliament and the subsequent ascent granted by the President, have not gone down well with the farming community, which feels that there should have been wide consultations, prior to such a step being taken. The Centre’s reluctance to review the decision led to the resignation of Harsimrat Kaur Badal from the Cabinet, and also the withdrawal of support by one of the BJP’s oldest allies, the Shiromani Akali Dal.

It is evident that those who advised the government on the laws were themselves not acquainted with the ground level situation in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, where the process of procurement is in variance with many other states. It is well known that each state has its own peculiarities, and thus care should have been taken while drafting the Bills. This kind of uncalled confrontation could have been avoided, had the farmers been brought on board, instead of ill-informed bureaucrats calling the shots.

Punjab is a very important state in multiple ways. It shares its borders with Pakistan and has borne the brunt of all India-Pakistan conflicts that have taken place there. Thus, it is paramount that an explosive situation should not be allowed to develop there, which would enable our enemy nation to exploit the discord. It is common knowledge that attempts by mischievous elements from across the border are constantly being made to send in narcotics, arms and other contraband through drones. The rise in the consumption of drugs has impacted an entire generation, and one of the reasons for the Akalis losing power in 2017 was because in the perception of the electorate, they did not do enough to contain this malaise.

The insistence of the Central government to stick to its position would therefore be a folly, which would not be in the national interest. There is a strong feeling in the state that politics was being played unnecessarily, and the BJP was wanting to divide the rural and urban areas of the state. This impression should be erased at the earliest. In a policy where the nation comes first, the Centre must find a way to address the problem. The issue has benefitted Captain Amarinder Singh immensely who, with his deft handling of the matter, has grown in political stature. He could easily facilitate a meaningful conversation between the Centre’s emissaries and the farmers. This face-off is uncalled for and must end at the earliest. The Centre would earn tremendous goodwill if it accommodates the issues raised by the farmers.

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