+

Analysing global challenges of poverty, climate CHANGE AND MIGRATION

In the complex landscape of global challenges, three critical issues—poverty, climate change, and migration—are interconnected challenges that shape the socio-economic fabric of nations, influencing lives, livelihoods, and the well-being of individuals worldwide. POVERTY While extreme poverty has decreased in middle-income countries, the situation in the poorest countries and those affected by fragility, conflict, or violence […]

In the complex landscape of global challenges, three critical issues—poverty, climate change, and migration—are interconnected challenges that shape the socio-economic fabric of nations, influencing lives, livelihoods, and the well-being of individuals worldwide.

POVERTY
While extreme poverty has decreased in middle-income countries, the situation in the poorest countries and those affected by fragility, conflict, or violence remains worse than before the pandemic. Presently, nearly 700 million people worldwide live in extreme poverty, defined as surviving on less than $2.15 per day. From 2010 to 2019, this number witnessed a 40% decline.

Despite strides in global poverty reduction, the COVID-19 pandemic dealt a significant blow, resulting in not only loss of lives and devastation but also shocks and crises that caused approximately three years of setbacks in poverty reduction. This translates to a setback of three years in the fight against poverty. Similar trends are evident for individuals living below $3.65 and $6.85 a day. In 2019, 1,768.18 people were living below the poverty line of $6.85 a day, and since then, the number has slightly increased. By 2023, the estimate reached 1,836.04 people.

CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change affects everyone and every economy, potentially causing 216 million people to migrate within their own countries by 2050. It can amplify water stress, reduce crop yields, particularly in the world’s most food-insecure regions, and contribute to one-third of all emissions through agrifood systems.

Despite comprising only 16% of the global population, high-income countries produce 31% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The United Arab Emirates (26 tonnes CO2e) and Australia (23 tonnes CO2e) have among the highest GHG emissions per capita. In terms of total greenhouse gas emissions, China leads with 26.4%, (18% of the global population), followed by the United States at 12.5% (4% of the global population), India at 7.1% (18% of the global population), and the European Union at 7.0% (6% of the global population).

MIGRATION
Migration poses a significant development challenge, with approximately 184 million people, equivalent to 2.3% of the global population, residing outside their country of nationality, and nearly half of them are in low- and middle-income nations. The World Development Report 2023 emphasizes that improved migration policies can contribute to prosperity in all countries. In high-income countries, 40% of migrants are observed, with 35% being economic migrants. In GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) countries, 17% are migrants, and all of them are economic migrants. Meanwhile, low and middle-income countries witness 43% of migrants, with 15% being economic migrants.

Tags: